[9/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Muhammad b. Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from Burayd al-Ijli who said: I said to Abi Ja’far عليه السلام: … he said: … and Allāh Blessed and Exalted did not place in the religion any discomfort for “difficulty” is more extreme than “discomfort”.
[8/-] al-Tahdhib: Muhammad b. Ali b. Mahbub from Ibn Isa from al-Bazanti who said: I asked him about a man who comes to the market and buys a cloak of fur but he is not sure whether it is pure or not pure – can he pray in it? he said: yes, you do not have to inquire about it, Aba Ja’far عليه السلام used to say: the Khawarij straitened things for themselves because of their ignorance, the religion is more expansive than that.
[7/87] Tawhid al-Saduq: From al-Attar from Sa’d from Ibn Yazid from Hammad from Hariz from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه واله said: my Umma are absolved of nine things: error, forgetfulness, what they are coerced to do, what they do not have the strength for, what they are ignorant of, what they have to do out of necessity, jealousy, bad omen, and thinking about the whispered (Shaytan-inspired) prompts (doubts cast) in regards the creation – so long as it is not voiced aloud. Comments
Humans are not liable for
(a) Inadvertent errors AND
(b) Lapses in memory –
This is because both are an unavoidable part of human nature. This should not be taken to extend to carelessness or become habitual.
Similarly, actions which are done
(c) Because of compulsion (like cursing the Imam if ordered by the unjust ruler) OR
(d) Without information about the true state of affairs (like praying Salat in clothes which were Ghasbi or clothes which were Najis etc.) OR
(e) Beyond human capacity (causing irreparable injury) OR
(f) To preserve one’s life (such as eating a Haram animal if there is no other option) –
Will also be overlooked and not result in negative consequences because of God’s mercy. They are not punishable because man is not in total command of himself and has no freedom of choice to act as he deems best in such cases.
(g) There is a difference of opinion as to what رفع of الطيرة (bad omen) means here, some have taken it to mean the lifting of its prohibition [so one can act based on the import of the bad omen], others have taken it to mean the opposite – the lifting of its permissibility [it was allowed for previous Umam] but not this one, others have taken it to mean that it is the effects of bad omen that have been lifted thus they do not affect the people of this Umma, while others take it to mean that the lifting cautions us to ignore the omen and not concern ourselves with it. I say: the lifting of its effects seems more appropriate. Note that the meaning of رفع changes just for this word since for the remaining articles it means lifting of punishment.
This interpretation is further supported by what al-Sadiq says:
علي بن إبراهيم عن أبيه عن عبد الله بن المغيرة عن عمرو بن حريث قال قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام الطيرة على ما تجعلها ان هونتها تهونت وان شددتها تشددت وإن لم تجعلها شيئا لم تكن شيئا
“The omen is what you make it out to be, if you consider it light it becomes light, if you consider it severe it becomes severe and if you consider it nothing it becomes nothing”.
(h) The jealousy which is not punishable is the type that is not acted upon, it has been lifted from the Umma because of the mercy of Allāh who knows that it is impossible to avoid inklings of jealousy in the heart.
(i) There are two interpretations of التفكر في الوسوسة في الخلق – one is […]
[6/-] al-Tahdhib: al-Mufid from Ahmad b. Muhammad from his father from al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Aban from al-Husayn b. Said from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from al-Fudhayl who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام was asked about the one in the state of Janaba who is bathing so [some of the used water] sprays off the ground and into the utensil, he said: there is no harm – this is covered by what Allāh the Exalted said: “He has not placed upon you in the religion any difficulty” (22:78).
[5/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father AND Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan all together from Hammad b. Isa from Hariz from Zurara who said: I said to Abi Ja’far عليه السلام: will you not inform me how you knew and ruled that the wiping should only be limited to a part of the head and a part of the feet, so he laughed and then said: … then he said: “Allāh does not intend to place upon you [in the religion] any difficulty” (5:6) – and “difficulty” is “discomfort”. Comments
When the Imam recited the verse he included في الدين – this is put in brackets as it is not part of the verse as we have it today. Such ‘additions’ were also common among the companions who were involved in transmitting the Qur’an and the scribes from the Tabi’in. They were not considered part of the Qur’an but mnemonic marker to aid the correct interpretation of the Qur’an in personal Masahif. However, since the Arabic script was under developed and writing was still in its infancy stages no distinctions used to be made between the primary text and such interpretive comments, sometimes it occurred that the latter was mistakenly considered part of the former by transmitters, giving rise to variants even in the Qira’at.
[4/86] al-Kafi: Ali from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr AND Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Safwan and Ibn Abi Umayr from Muawiya b. Ammar from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام that when the messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه واله finished his Tawaf and the two units (Salat al-Tawaf) he said: I begin with what Allāh Mighty and Majestic began with – proceeding to Safa first – Allāh Mighty ad Majestic says: “Verily Safa and Marwa are from among the signs of Allāh” (2:158) … Comments
The Sai begins with Safa because of the arrangement found in the verse, Safa is mentioned first before Marwa.
[3/85] al-Kafi: Ali from his father AND Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan all together from Hammad from Hariz from Zurara who said: Abu Ja’far said عليه السلام: follow in the Wudhu the way Allāh Mighty and Majestic said – begin with the face… begin with what Allāh Mighty and Majestic began with. Comments
The chronological arrangement of a series of commands found in a verse are significant in so far as the external rite should also conform to such an order.
[2/84] al-Kafi: Ali from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hammad from Hariz who said: Ismail the son of Abi Abdillah had gold coins and a man from the Quraysh wanted to set out to Yaman, so Ismail said: O father – so and so wants to set out to Yaman and I have some gold coins do you think I should give them to him to buy me some goods from Yaman? Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: O my son – has it not reached you that he drinks wine? Ismail said: this is what the people say, he said: O my son – do not do that, but Ismail did not obey his father and gave the gold coins to him so he (that man) lost it all and did not give anything of them (back) to him… he said: O my son – verily Allāh Mighty and Majestic says in his book: “(he) believes in Allāh and believes the believers” (9:61) – meaning: confirms the truth of Allāh and considers the believers truthful, so if the believers witness something to you then accept it from them…
[1/83] al-Kafi: Ali from his father AND Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl all together from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hafs b. al-Bukhtari from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, he (Hafs) said: I heard him saying about the one who loses consciousness: what Allāh has power over then Allāh is more entitled to excuse. Comments
One who loses his senses cannot be held to account because it is something beyond his control (in fact, him being overcome is one of the signs of the might of God as opposed to human weakness). Narrations also confirm that such a one does not repay the Salat missed in such a state.