Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning

//Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning – Ḥadīth #10

[10/63] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Yunus from Hariz from Zurara who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the Halal and the Haram so he said: the Halal of Muhammad is Halal forever unto the day of judgment and his Haram is Haram forever unto the day of judgment, there will be nothing other than it and nothing apart from it will come, and he said: Ali عليه السلام said: no one has innovated a Bid’a except that he has abandoned a Sunnah(by doing so).

[10/63] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن يونس، عن حريز عن زرارة قال: سألت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام عن الحلال والحرام فقال: حلال محمد حلال أبدا إلى يوم القيامة، وحرامه حرام أبدا إلى يوم القيامة، لا يكون غيره ولا يجيئ غيره، وقال: قال علي عليه السلام: ما أحد ابتدع بدعة إلا ترك بها سنة

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning – Ḥadīth #09

[9/62] Ma’ani al-Akhbar: With the above chain from Ibn Isa from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibn Udhayna from Burayd al-Ijli who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: what is the least thing by which the slave becomes Kafir? So he took a pebble from the ground and said: that he says about this pebble ‘it is a date-stone’ and goes on to disassociate from anyone who opposes him in that, and he worships Allāh by disassociating from the one who professes a belief other than his own, so this is a hostile opponent who has ascribed partners to Allāh and disbelieved without knowing.

[9/62] معاني الاخبار: وبهذا الاسناد عن ابن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن ابن اذينة، عن بريد العجلي قال: قلت لابي عبد الله عليه السلام: ما أدنى ما يصير به العبد كافرا؟ قال: فأخذ حصاة من الارض فقال: أن يقول لهذه الحصاة: إنها نواة، ويبرء ممن خالفه على ذلك، ويدين الله بالبراءة ممن قال بغير قوله، فهذا ناصب قد أشرك بالله وكفر من حيث لا يعلم

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning – Ḥadīth #08

[8/61] Ma’ani al-Akhbar: Ibn al-Walid from al-Saffar from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Ahwazi from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabi who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: what is the least thing by which the slave becomes Kafir? he said: that he innovates something and  associates solely on its basis and disassociates from the one who opposes him (in it).

[8/61] معاني الاخبار: ابن الوليد، عن الصفار، عن احمد بن محمد ابن عيسى، عن الأهوازي، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن حماد، عن الحلبي قال: قلت لابي عبد الله عليه السلام: ما أدنى ما يكون به العبد كافرا؟ قال: أن يبتدع شيئا فيتولى عليه ويبرأ ممن خالفه

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning – Ḥadīth #07

[7/60] al-Tawhid and al-Uyun and al-Amali: Ibn al-Mutawakkil from Ali from his father from al-Rayyan b. al-Salt from Ali b. Musa al-Ridha from his forefathers from the commander of the faithful عليهم السلام who said: the messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه واله said: Allāh Majestic is His Majesty said: he has not believed in Me the one who interprets My words based on his opinion, and he has not known Me the one who compares Me to My creation, and he is not upon My religion the one who uses analogical reasoning in it.

[7/60] التوحيد والعيون والأمالي: ابن المتوكل، عن علي، عن أبيه، عن الريان بن الصلت، عن علي بن موسى الرضا، عن آبائه، عن أمير المؤمنين عليهم السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه واله قال الله جل جلاله: ما آمن بي من فسر برأيه كلامي، وما عرفني من شبهني بخلقي وما على ديني من استعمل القياس في ديني

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning – Ḥadīth #06

[6/59] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Safwan b. Yahya from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj from Aban b. Taghlib from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the Sunnahcannot be derived by analogy, do you not see that a woman repays her fasts but does not repay her prayers, O Aban! If the Sunnahis analogized then the religion is destroyed.

[6/59] الكافي: محمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن عبد الرحمن بن الحجاج، عن أبان بن تغلب عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: إن السنة لا تقاس ألا ترى أن امرأة تقضي صومها ولا تقضي صلاتها يا أبان! إن السنة إذا قيست محق الدين

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning – Ḥadīth #05

[5/58] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad from al-Washsha from Muthanna al-Hannat from Abi Basir who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: things are referred to us of which we have no knowledge in the Book of Allāh nor the Sunnah- should we exercise reason in them? He said: no, for even if you were to get it right you will not be rewarded for it, and if you were to err in it then you have lied upon Allāh Mighty and Majestic.

[5/58] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن الوشاء، عن مثنى الحناط، عن أبي بصير قال: قلت لابي عبدالله عليه السلام: ترد علينا أشياء ليس نعرفها في كتاب الله ولا سنة فننظر فيها؟ فقال: لا، أما إنك إن أصبت لم تؤجر، وإن أخطأت كذبت على الله عز وجل

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning – Ḥadīth #04

[4/57] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from Muawiya b. Wahb who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: the messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله said: For every innovation that arises after me – by which is sought the weakening of the faith – there will be a guardian from the people of my house in charge of it (faith) who will defend it, he will speak by inspiration from Allāh and will proclaim the truth and illuminate it, he will repulse the plot of the plotters and speak out in defense of the weak ones, so pay heed O possessors of insight and rely upon Allāh.

[4/57] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن معاوية بن وهب قال: سمعت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام يقول: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: إن عند كل بدعة تكون من بعدي يكاد بها الايمان وليا من أهل بيتي موكلا به يذب عنه، ينطق بإلهام من الله ويعلن الحق وينوره، ويرد كيد الكائدين، يعبر عن الضعفاء فاعتبروا يا أولي الابصار وتوكلوا على الله

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning – Ḥadīth #03

[3/56] al-Kafi: Ali from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus from Qutayba who said: a man asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about an issue and he answered him in it – so the man said: suppose if it were so and so – what would the answer be in it then? So he said to him: keep silent, whatever I have answered regarding it – then it is on the authority of the messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله, we have nothing to do with ‘suppose’ whatsoever. Comments

“suppose” [lit. do you see]: a clause that was used by ever-imaginative students to frame questions of a hypothetical nature to scholars and get them to opine in matters of the law. It was mostly used within circles which considered reason as a primary source of the religion. The Imam sets the record straight by emphasizing the importance of sticking to the letter of the law in which there is no room for personal interpretation beyond what is received from the prophet.

[3/56] الكافي: علي، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس، عن قتيبة قال: سأل رجل أبا عبدالله عليه السلام عن مسألة فأجابه فيها، فقال الرجل: أرأيت إن كان كذا وكذا ما يكون القول فيها؟ فقال له: مه ما أجبتك فيه من شئ فهو عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله لسنا من: ” أرأيت” في شئ

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning – Ḥadīth #02

[2/55] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman from Sima’a b. Mihran from Abi al-Hasan Musa عليه السلام, I said: may Allāh make you prosper – we do gather and discuss what we have (from you), nothing is referred to us (of questions) except that we have in it something (answer) recorded (on your authority), and that is from what Allāh has blessed us with through you, however a small thing may be referred to us in which we have nothing (from you), so we look at one another (in hopelessness), but we do have something similar to it (answers from you about parallel scenarios) – should we analogize it (the question asked) to the most suited (closest scenario)? he said: and what do you have to do with analogical reasoning? verily they were destroyed those who were destroyed before you because of analogical reasoning, then he said: if it comes to you that which you have knowledge of then – say, and if it comes to you that which you do not know then – and he pointed with his hand to his mouth, then he said: may Allāh curse Aba Hanifa he used to say: “Ali said but I say” and “the companions said but I say”, then he said: did you use to sit with him (in his teaching sessions)? I said: no – but these are his words, then I said: may Allāh make you prosper – the messenger of Allāh came with all that which would suffice them (the people) in his time? he said: yes, and even that which they will have need of up to the day of judgment, I said: has anything from that been lost? he said: no, it is with his family.

[2/55] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن يونس بن عبدالرحمن، عن سماعة بن مهران، عن أبي الحسن موسى عليه السلام قال: قلت: أصلحك الله إنا نجتمع فنتذاكر ما عندنا فلا يرد علينا شئ إلا وعندنا فيه شئ مسطر وذلك مما أنعم الله به علينا بكم، ثم يرد علينا الشئ الصغير ليس عندنا فيه شئ فينظر بعضنا إلى بعض، وعندنا ما يشبهه فنقيس على أحسنه؟ فقال: ومالكم وللقياس؟ إنما هلك من هلك من قبلكم بالقياس، ثم قال: إذا جاء كم ما تعلمون، فقولوا به وإن جائكم ما لا تعلمون فها – وأهوى بيده إلى فيه – ثم قال: لعن الله أبا حنيفة كان يقول: قال علي وقلت أنا، وقالت الصحابة وقلت، ثم قال: أكنت تجلس إليه؟ فقلت: لا ولكن هذا كلامه، فقلت: أصلحك الله أتى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله الناس بما يكتفون به في عهده؟ قال: نعم وما يحتاجون إليه إلى يوم القيامة، فقلت: فضاع من ذلك شئ؟ فقال: لا هو عند أهله

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Regarding Innovation and Analogical Reasoning – Ḥadīth #01

[1/54] al-Kafi: al-Husayn b. Muhammad al-Ash’ari from Mualla b. Muhammad from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Washsha AND a number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ibn Fadhal all together from A’sim b. Humayd from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام who said: the commander of the faithful عليه السلام addressed the people and said: O people – verily the beginning of occurrence of strife is [due to] desires being followed and laws being innovated – in which the book of Allāh is opposed and in which men follow other men, if the falsehood were to be completely distinct it would not be hidden from anyone who possesses intellect, and if the truth were to be completely distinct there would not be any disagreement, but it is taken from this (falsehood) a handful and from that (truth) a handful and then mixed and presented together, this is whence the Satan overwhelms his allies whilst are saved those to whom had preceded grace from Allāh.

[1/54] الكافي: الحسين بن محمد الاشعري، عن معلى بن محمد، عن الحسن بن علي الوشاء، و عدة من أصحابنا، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن ابن فضال جميعا، عن عاصم بن حميد، عن محمد ابن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: خطب أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام الناس فقال: أيها الناس إنما بدء وقوع الفتن أهواء تتبع، وأحكام تبتدع، يخالف فيها كتاب الله، يتولى فيها رجال رجالا، فلو أن الباطل خلص لم يخف على ذي حجى، ولو أن الحق خلص لم يكن اختلاف ولكن يؤخذ من هذا ضغث ومن هذا ضغث فيمزجان فيجيئان معا فهنالك استحوذ الشيطان على أوليائه ونجا الذين سبقت لهم من الله الحسنى
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