Principle of Precaution

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Principle of Precaution – Ḥadīth #3

[3/-] al-Tahdhib: Via his chain from Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Yahya from Harun b. Muslim from Mas’ada b. Ziyad from Ja’far from his forefathers عليهم السلام that the prophet صلى الله عليه وآله said: do not unite in marriage upon doubt – He meant to say: if it reaches you [information that] that you have suckled of her milk [from the same source – she is your foster sister] and that she is a Mahram to you, or something similar to this then halting in the face of doubt is better than rushing headlong into destruction. Comments

al-Moḥsini says: It is apparent that such precaution is not limited to cases of marriage.

[-/3] التهذيب: باسناده عن محمد بن احمد بن يحيى عن هارون بن مسلم عن مسعدة بن زياد عن جعفر عن آبائه عليهم السلام ان النبي صلى الله عليه وآله قال: لا تجامعوا في النكاح على الشبهة يقول: إذا بلغك انك قد رضعت من لبنها وانها لك محرم وما اشبه ذلك فان الوقوف عند الشبهة خير من الاقتحام في الهلكة

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Principle of Precaution – Ḥadīth #2

[2/-] al-Kafi: Ali from his father AND Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan all together from Ibn Abi Umayr and Safwan b. Yahya all together from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj who said: I asked Aba al-Hasan عليه السلام about two men who kill game [together] while they are in Ihram – will the atonement be shared between them or will it be incumbent on each one of them individually? He said: Rather it will be on each one of them to atone individually for the hunted animal, I said: one of our fellows asked me about that but I did not know what would be upon him, so he said: if you encounter the like of this [such scenarios] and do not know what to do then upon you is acting by precaution until when you ask about it and know [the exact answer]. Comments

al-Majlisi says: Ihtiyat (precaution) here means not giving an answer one way or another (if you are the one asked) and not acting one way or the other (if you are the one asking) until you ask the Imam himself and obtain full knowledge.

I say: it is also possible that the Imam means by Ihtiyat here that you should answer or act in such a way that you bear the utmost burden possible, so in this case you would rule both of them to pay Kaffara individually for hunting instead of sharing the cost between themselves. As in Ihtiyat is to cover all bases and do more that what could be required so as to be on the safe side.

[-/2] الكافي: علي، عن أبيه، ومحمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان جميعا، عن ابن أبي عمير وصفوان بن يحيى جميعا، عن عبدالرحمن بن الحجاج قال: سألت أبا الحسن عليه السلام عن رجلين أصابا صيدا وهما محرمان الجزاء بينهما أو على كل واحد منهما جزاء؟ فقال: لابل عليهما أن يجزي كل واحد منهما الصيد، قلت: إن بعض أصحابنا سألني عن ذلك فلم أدر ما عليه، فقال: إذا أصبتم مثل هذا فلم تدروا فعليكم بالاحتياط حتى تسألوا عنه فتعلموا

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Principle of Precaution – Ḥadīth #1

[1/-] al-Tahdhib: From al-Hasan b. Muhammad b. Sama’a from Sulayman b. Dawud from Abdallah b. Wadhah who said: I wrote to the Righteous Servant (al-Kadhim) عليه السلام … so he wrote to me (saying): I deem for you that you delay [praying] until the reddish hue disappears and that you act prudently in your religion.

[-/1] التهذيب: عن الحسن بن محمد بن سماعة عن سليمان بن داود عن عبدالله بن وضاح قال: كتبت إلى العبد الصالح عليه السلام … فكتب إلي أرى لك أن تنتظر حتى تذهب الحمرة وتأخذ بالحايطة لدينك
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