Principle of Continuity

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Principle of Continuity – Ḥadīth #6

[6/99] al-Kafi, al-Tahdhib and al-Istibsar: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father AND Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan all together from Hammad b. Isa from Hariz from Zurara from one of them عليه السلام, he (Zurara) said: I said to him: the one who does not know whether he is in the fourth or the second (Rak’a) but is sure that he has completed two [what should he do]? He said: he will perform two units and four prostrations and he stands reciting al-Fatiha and makes the Tashahud, and there is nothing further upon him, and if he does not know whether he is in the third or the fourth but he is sure that he has completed three – he stands and adds another (unit) to them and there is nothing further upon him. Certainty is not overriden by doubt and doubt does not enter certainty, one of them does not mix with the other, rather doubt is overriden by certainty, and one completes upon certainty building upon it, and doubt is regarded in any situation whatsoever.

[6/99] الكافي والتهذيبان: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، ومحمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان جميعا، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن حريز، عن زرارة، عن أحدهما عليه السلام قال: قلت له: من لم يدر في أربع هو أم في ثنتين وقد احرز الثنتين؟ قال: يركع ركعتين وأربع سجدات وهو قائم بفاتحة الكتاب ويتشهد ولا شئ عليه وإذا لم يدر في ثلاث هو أو في أربع وقد أحرز الثلاث قام فأضاف إليها اخرى ولا شئ عليه ولا ينقض اليقين بالشك ولا يدخل الشك في اليقين ولا يخلط أحدهما بالآخر ولكنه ينقض الشك باليقين ويتم على اليقين فيبنى عليه ولا يعتد بالشك في حال من الحالات

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Principle of Continuity – Ḥadīth #5

[5/98] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad from al-Abbas b. A’mir from Abdallah b. Bukayr from his father who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to me: if you are sure that you have broken your Wudhu then renew it, beware of ever renewing a Wudhu unless you are certain that you have broken it.

[5/98] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا عن أحمد بن محمد، عن العباس بن عامر، عن عبدالله بن بكير، عن أبيه، قال: قال لي أبوعبدالله عليه السلام: إذا استيقنت أنك قد أحدثت فتوضأ وإياك أن تحدث وضوء ا أبدا حتى تستيقن أنك قد أحدثت

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Principle of Continuity – Ḥadīth #4

 [4/97] al-Khisal: In  the ‘Four Hundred’ Narration: the commander of the faithful عليه السلام said: whoever is upon certainty – and then doubts – should continue upon his certainty for doubt does not override certainty.
 [4/97] الخصال: في حديث الأربعمائة: قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: من كان على يقين فشك فليمض على يقينه فان الشك لا ينقض اليقين

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Principle of Continuity – Ḥadīth #3

[3/96] al-Tahdhib: By the chain to al-Husayn b. Sa`id from Hammad from Hariz from Zurara who said: I said to him: a man in Wudhu falls asleep – closing his eyes for a beat or two – does this mean that he is obliged to renew Wudhu? he said: O Zurara, the eye may sleep while the heart and the ear are awake, only when the eye, the ear and the heart all sleep does Wudhu become obligatory, I said: what if something moves near him while he is not even aware of it, he said: no [that does not mean he has to renew Wudhu], unless he is certain that he has fallen asleep and unless there manifests a clear sign indicating that, if not then he was certain about his initial Wudhu and certainty is never overriden by doubt rather what overrides it [certainty] is another certainty [he become sure of a new event].

[3/96] التتهذيب: بالاسناد عن الحسين بن سعيد عن حماد عن حريز عن زرارة قال قلت له: الرجل ينام وهو على وضوء أتوجب الخفقة والخفقتان عليه الوضوء؟ فقال يا زرارة: قد تنام العين ولا ينام القلب والاذن فإذا نامت العين والاذن والقلب فقد وجب الوضوء، قلت فان حرك إلى جنبه شئ ولم يعلم به قال: لا حتى يستيقن انه قد نام حتى يجيئ من ذلك أمر بين وإلا فانه على يقين من وضوئه، ولا ينقض اليقين أبدا بالشك ولكن ينقضه بيقين آخر

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Principle of Continuity – Ḥadīth #2

[2/95] al-Istibsar: From al-Mufid from Ja’far b. Muhammad from his father from Sa’d b. Abdallah from Ahmad b. Muhammad from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from Abdallah b. Sinan who said: my father asked Abi Abdillah عليه السلام while I was present [the following question]: I sometimes lend my clothes to a Dhimmi and I know that he drinks wine and eats the meat of swine, so when he returns them to me should I wash them before praying in them? Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: pray in them and do not wash them because of that, for you lent them to him while you were certain that they were pure and you do not have certainty about its impurity (when he returns them), so there is no harm in you praying in it until you become certain that it is impure.

[2/95] الاستبصار: عن المفيد عن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه عن سعد بن عبدالله عن أحمد بن محمد عن الحسن بن محبوب عن عبدالله بن سنان قال: سأل أبي أبا عبدالله عليه السلام وأنا حاضر إني أعير الذمي ثوبي وانا اعلم انه يشرب الخمر ويأكل لحم الخنزير فيرده علي فاغسله قبل ان أصلي فيه؟ فقال أبوعبدالله عليه السلام: صل فيه ولا تغسله من أجل ذلك فانك اعرته اياه وهو طاهر ولم تستيقن انه نجسه فلا بأس أن تصلي فيه حتى تستيقن انه نجسه

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Principle of Continuity – Ḥadīth #1

[1/94] al-Ilal: From his father from Ali from his father from Hammad from Hariz from Zurara who said: I said to Abi Ja’far عليه السلام – my clothes come into contact with blood either because of nose-bleeding or some other reason or it comes into contact with some amount of semen … and the time to pray arrives and I forget that my clothes have something (impure in them) – so I pray and then remember after finishing? He said: you repeat the prayer and you wash it off (the impurity) … I said: if I only suspect that it has come into contact with it and am not certain of that, and I try to inspect (to look for it) but find nothing, then I inspect it again after finishing the prayer and find it? he said: you wash it and do not repeat the prayer, I said: how come it is like that (repeat the prayer in the former case and not here)? he said: because you were certain of its purity (when you began praying) and then you doubted later, so it is not appropriate for you to override your certainty because of doubt ever … (Zurara said): what if I see it on my clothes whilst I am praying? He said: you will only break the prayer and repeat it anew if you had doubt about where exactly it was (the location of it – having not found it before) and go on to find it (while praying), but if you had no doubt [of having contracted impurity at all] and then see it (the impurity) – still wet – you cut off your prayer and wash it, then you continue with the same prayer [where you left off], because you just don’t know perhaps it is something that fell on you [while praying], for it is not appropriate for you to override certainty by doubt. Comments

Taken from Sayyid al-Khoei’s lecture notes (Taqrirat) recorded in Misbah al-Usul.

The 1st question was about the ruling concerning one who performs the Salat whilst being Najis – having forgotten to clean it despite having knowledge of the Najasa – so he replied that Salat should be repeated and also the clothes should be cleaned. And this fact has been substantiated by other narrations, and the reason for this given in some of them is that – the one who forgets has taken the matter of Tahara lightly unlike the one who is totally ignorant. And there is no controversy about this ruling.

The 2nd question was about someone who had doubt about Najasa and prays in such circumstances – so he replied that cleaning off the Najasa is necessary but repeating the prayer is not required, because the person began the prayer while being certain of his Tahara (he even looked for the Najasa but did not find it), then he doubted and came to find it, and certainty is not overriden by doubt.

The 3rd question was about noticing a Najasa in the course of […]

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