Legal Injunctions are Predicated on Pubescence

//Legal Injunctions are Predicated on Pubescence

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Legal Injunctions are Predicated on Pubescence – Ḥadīth #12

[12/110] al-Faqih: From al-Bazanti from al-Ridha عليه السلام who said: a boy is taken to task over prayers when he is seven years old, and a woman does not cover her hair from him until he begins to have nocturnal emissions.

[12/110] الفقيه: عن البزنطي عن الرضا عليه السلام قال: يؤخذ الغلام بالصلاة وهو ابن سبع سنين ولا تغطي المرأة شعرها منه حتى يحتلم

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Legal Injunctions are Predicated on Pubescence – Ḥadīth #11

[11/109] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Muhammad b. Isa from Mansur [b. Hazim] from Hisham b. Salim from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the termination of the orphanhood of the orphan is by nocturnal emission and it is considered his maturity, however if he begins to have nocturnal emissions but signs of intellectual maturity are not detected from him such that he is foolhardy or mentally incapacitated then his guardian withholds from handing over his wealth to him. Comments

Rushd rendered here as “intellectual maturity” refers to the capacity to behave in a responsible and constructive manner. It is the opposite of Safh “foolishness” of the Safih.

[11/109] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن احمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن منصور، عن هشام بن سالم، عن ابي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: انقطاع يتم اليتيم الاحتلام وهو اشده وان احتلم ولم يؤنس منه رشد وكان سفيها أو ضعيفا فليمسك عنه وليه ماله

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Legal Injunctions are Predicated on Pubescence – Ḥadīth #10

[10/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Mansur b. Yunus from Mansur b. Hazim from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: there is no suckling after weaning, there is no joining [two consecutive days] in fasting, there is no orphanhood after nocturnal emission, there is no vow of silence from morning to night, there is no return to the nomadic ways after migration [to the urban center of faith], there is no Hijra after the conquest [of Makka], there is no divorce before marriage, there is no setting free [of a slave] before ownership, there can be no oath from a child without the consent of his father, nor from a slave without the consent of his master, nor for a woman without the consent of her husband, there can be no promise to do an evil, nor an oath to break blood-ties.

The meaning of his words: there is no suckling after weaning is that – a child if he drinks the milk of a woman after he has been weaned off milk [two years] then that suckling does not prevent marriage [she does not become his Mahram/foster mother].

Comments

The last statement is either the words of the Imam interpreting what the prophet said, one of the narrators in the chain, or the author of al-Kulayni himself.

The Hadith itself contains pithy legal maxims from the prophet which were easy to memorize and were a particularly important source of guidance in daily life. They summarize whole sections of the Law in a few words. Identical maxims have also been preserved in the two early Musannafs, those of Abd al-Razzaq and Ibn Abi Shayba [further confirming the fact that the Ahl al-Sunna have not wholly lost the prophetic legacy]. I have also found fragmentary traces of the some of the maxims in Sunan Abi Dawud.

Vows of silence as taken by past communities like Buddhists and monks in monasteries have no significance in Islam.

The concept of “returning to the nomadic ways after migration” is understood in its modern context as moving to a place where one cannot practice his religion and is under constant temptation of sin.

There can be no “promise to do an evil” means that one is not supposed to give any credence to a promise which involves committing a sin to fulfill it, in fact such a promise has no value and should be ignored. Similarly, one cannot uphold an oath that calls on him to break ties of blood relationship.

[-/10] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن منصور بن يونس، عن منصور بن حازم، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: لارضاع بعد فطام ولا وصال في صيام ولا يتم بعد احتلام ولا صمت يوما إلى الليل ولا تعرب بعد الهجرة ولا هجرة بعد الفتح ولا طلاق قبل نكاح ، ولا عتق قبل ملك ، ولا يمين للولد مع والده ولا […]

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Legal Injunctions are Predicated on Pubescence – Ḥadīth #9

[9/108] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadan AND Abu Ali al-Ash`ari from Muhammad b. Abd al-Jabbar all together from Safwan b. Yahya from Abd al-Rahman b. al-Hajjaj who said: I asked Aba Ibrahim عليه السلام about a girl who has not attained puberty – when is it incumbent on her to cover her head from the one one with whom she does not share any relation? and when is it obligatory on her to veil her head fully in the prayer? He said: she does not have to cover her head until the prayer starts becoming prohibited on her [i.e. she begins menstruating].

[9/108] الكافي: محمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، وأبوعلي الاشعري، عن محمد بن عبدالجبار جميعا، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن عبدالرحمن بن الحجاج قال: سألت أبا إبراهيم عليه السلام عن الجارية التي لم تدرك متى ينبغي لها أن تغطى رأسها ممن ليس بينها وبينه محرم ومتى يجب عليها أن تقنع رأسها للصلاة؟ قال: لاتغطى رأسها حتى تحرم عليها الصلاة

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Legal Injunctions are Predicated on Pubescence – Ḥadīth #8

[8/107] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Sahl b. Ziyad AND Ali b. Ibrahim from his father all together from Ibn Abi Najran from Asim b. Humayd from Muhammad b. Muslim from Abi Ja’far عليه السلام who said: it is not proper for a girl if she has begun menstruating to not veil herself – unless she cannot find it.

[8/107] الكافي: عدة من أصحابنا، عن سهل بن زياد، وعلي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه جميعا، عن ابن أبي نجران، عن عاصم بن حميد، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: لايصلح للجارية إذا حاضت إلا أن تختمر إلا أن لا تجده

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Legal Injunctions are Predicated on Pubescence – Ḥadīth #7

[7/106] al-Faqih: Via his chain from Safwan from Ishaq b. Ammar who said: I asked Aba al-Hasan عليه السلام about a boy of ten years – can he make the Hajj? He said: upon him is the Hajj of Islam if he has begun getting nocturnal emissions, and the same is the case for the girl – Hajj is upon her if she has begun menstruating.

[7/106] الفقيه: باسناده عن صفوان، عن إسحاق بن عمار قال: سألت أبا الحسن عليه السلام عن ابن عشر سنين يحج؟ قال: عليه حجة الاسلام إذا احتلم وكذلك الجارية عليها الحج إذا طمثت

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Legal Injunctions are Predicated on Pubescence – Ḥadīth #6

[6/105] al-Tahdhib: Via his chain from Muhammad b. Ali b. Mahbub from al-Abbas b. al-Ma`ruf from Hammad b. Isa from Muawiya b. Wahb who said: I asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام: at what age is the boy taken to task over prayers? He said: between seven and six years of age, I said: at what age is fasting demanded from him? he said: between fifteen or fourteen years, and if he fasts before that then leave him to do it for one of my sons began fasting before that and I let him.

[6/105] التهذيب: باسناده عن محمد بن علي بن محبوب، عن العباس بن معروف، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن معاوية بن وهب قال: سألت أبا عبدالله عليه السلام: في كم يؤخذ الصبي بالصلاة؟ فقال: فيما بين سبع سنين وست سنين قلت: في كم يؤخذ بالصيام؟ فقال: فيما بين خمس عشرة أو أربع عشرة، وان صام قبل ذلك فدعه فقد صام ابني فلان قبل ذلك وتركته

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Legal Injunctions are Predicated on Pubescence – Ḥadīth #5

[5/104] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hammad b. Uthman from al-Halabi and Zurara from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام that he was asked about the prayer over a [deceased] child [Salat al-Mayyit] – when is it prayed over him? he said: when he can understand the prayer, I said: when is prayer obligatory on him (to begin praying)? he said: if he is a child of six years, and fasting is when he has the strength for it [is capable]. Comments

The Hadith obligates prayer for a boy at the age of six, and this is among that which we have to return its knowledge to its people (we cannot explain it without recourse to the Ahl al-Bayt themselves). Unless obligation here is understood as recommendation [in light of the other narrations] – in which case the Hadith would be emphasizing that the training of the boy should begin at six so that he can become familiar with it and get used to it, otherwise he will rebel when it becomes Wajib on him later due to lack of practice and discipline.

[5/104] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن حماد بن عثمان، عن الحلبي وزرارة، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام أنه سئل عن الصلاة على الصبي متى يصلى عليه؟ قال: إذا عقل الصلاة قلت: متى تجب الصلاة عليه؟ فقال: إذا كان ابن ست سنين والصيام إذا أطاقه

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Legal Injunctions are Predicated on Pubescence – Ḥadīth #4

[4/103] al-Khisal: From his father from Ali from his father from Ibn Abi Umayr from more than one from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: the threshold for a woman’s pubescence is nine years.

[4/103] الخصال: عن أبيه، عن علي، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن غير واحد، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: حد بلوغ المرأة تسع سنين

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Legal Injunctions are Predicated on Pubescence – Ḥadīth #3

[3/102] al-Tahdhib: Via his chain from Muhammad b. Ali b. Mahbub from Muhammad b. al-Husayn from al-Hasan b. Ali from Amr b. Sa`id from Musaddiq b. Sadaqa from Ammar al-Sabati from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام, he (Ammar) said: I asked him about a boy – when does prayer become obligatory on him? he said: if he completes thirteen years, but if he has nocturnal emissions before that then the prayer has already become obligatory on him and the Pen begins to record for him, and the girl likewise if she completes thirteen years or if she menstruates before that – the prayer become obligatory on her and the Pen begins to record for her.

 [3/102] التهذيب: باسناده عن محمد بن علي بن محبوب، عن عن محمد بن الحسين، عن الحسن بن علي، عن عمرو بن سعيد، عن مصدق بن صدقة، عن عمار الساباطي، عن أبى عبدالله عليه السلام قال: سألته عن الغلام متى تجب عليه الصلاة؟ قال: إذا أتى عليه ثلاث عشرة سنة، فان احتلم قبل ذلك فقد وجبت عليه الصلاة وجرى عليه القلم، والجارية مثل ذلك ان أتى لها ثلاث عشرة سنة أو حاضت قبل ذلك فقد وجبت عليها الصلاة وجرى عليها القلم
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