Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara

/Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Harun b. Sa’d – Ḥadīth #3

[3/273] Ghayba of al-Tusi: al-Kulayni from Sa’d from al-Yaqtini from Ali b. al-Hakam and Ali b. al-Hasan b. Nafi from Harun b. Kharija who said: Harun b. Sa’d al-Ijli said to me: Ismail [the son of al-Sadiq] towards whom you were stretching out your necks [i.e. expecting to be the next Imam] is dead, furthermore, Ja’far is an old man, he will die tomorrow or the day after, then you will remain without an Imam! I did not know what to say in reply, so I informed Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about what he [al-Ijli] had said. He [the Imam] said: how far, how far [is al-Ijli’s wish] – by Allah – Allah has refused to allow this matter to stop [Imama to discontinue] until the day and night also stop, so if you see him again say to him: this is Musa b. Ja’far – he will grow up, we will marry him off, and he will have a child as his successor – if Allah wills. Comments

Harun b. Sa’d al-Ijli was the leader of a Zaydi faction called the Ijliyya [See also section 3.50. – 3.51]. The Ijliyya were very similar to Batri Zaydis. They were known for accepting the legitimacy of Abu Bakr and Umar even whilst claiming to prefer Ali. They would consider any descendant of Ali who unsheathes the sword and confronts the corrupt temporal rulers to be an Imam.

Harun participated in the revolts of Zayd b. Ali and Ibrahim b. al-Hasan against the Umayyad and Abbasid regimes respectively. He must have had quite an influence over his followers. The Imam uses a play on words – comparing his tribal affiliation [Ijli] to the golden calf [Ijl] worshiped by the Israelites [See No. 1/271].

Harun had a low opinion of al-Sadiq and his followers because they were queitist and did not participate in armed struggle. He taunts them by prematurely predicting that there will be no successor to al-Sadiq after the death of the elder favourite Ismail [See No. 3/273]. The preoccupation of the Ijliyya with warfare meant that they had no firm grounding in learning. al-Sadiq declares that even the Murjia and Khawarij have some semblance of knowledge, despite being wrong, when compared to the Ijliyya [See No. 2/272].

Below is part of a poem attributed to Harun as quoted by Ibn Qutayba in his Uyun and Ta’wil Ikhtilaf al-Hadith:

 

ألم تر أن الرافضين تفرقوا      فكلهم في جعفر قال منكرا

فطائفة قالت إمام ومنهم   طوائف سمته النبي المطهرا

فإن كان يرضى ما يقولون جعفر   فإني إلى ربي أفارق جعفرا

ومن عجب لم أقضه جلد جفرهم   برئت إلى الرحمن ممن تجفرا

برئت إلى الرحمن من كل رافض   بصير بباب الكفر في الدين أعورا

Don’t you see that the Rawafid are divided … For everyone of them has believed about Ja’far something abominable

There is a group which says ‘he is an Imam’ … yet other groups consider him a purified prophet

If it is true that Ja’far agrees with what they say … […]

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Harun b. Sa’d – Ḥadīth #2

[2/272] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Ayyub b. Nuh from Safwan from Dawud b. Farqad from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: there is no one more ignorant than them – that is the Ijliyya – among the Murjia there is [found] jurisprudence [legal opinions] and knowledge, and among the Khawarij there is jurisprudence and knowledge, but there is no one more ignorant than them [the Ijliyya].

[2/272] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، قال حدثنا أيوب بن نوح، قال حدثنا صفوان، عن داود بن فرقد، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: ما أحد أجهل منهم يعني العجلية، إن في المرجئة فتيا و علما و في الخوارج فتيا و علما، و ما أحد أجهل منهم

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Harun b. Sa’d – Ḥadīth #1

[1/271] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Abdallah b. Muhammad b. Khalid from al-Hasan b. Ali al-Khazzaz from Ali b. Uqba from Dawud b. Farqad who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: I had a need which I wanted my Lord the Elevated to fulfill, so I set out to the Masjid with that purpose in mind, and this is how I used to do whenever I had a need of something. While I was praying in the Rawdha a man approached and lurked overhead. I said: where is the man from? he said: from the residents of Kufa, I said: where is the man from? He said: from the tribe of Aslam, I said: where is the man from? He said: the Zaydiyya, I said: O brother of Aslam – who do you know among them [the Zaydiyya]? he said: I know the best of them and their leader Harun b. Sa’d. I said: O brother of Aslam that one is the head of the Ijliyya! Have you not heard Allah Mighty and Majestic saying: “those who took the calf (Ijl) (for worship) will only obtain anger from their Lord and humiliation in the life of this world” (7:152) …

[1/271] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن عبد الله بن محمد بن خالد، عن الحسن بن علي الخزاز، عن علي بن عقبة، عن داود بن فرقد قال: قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: عرضت لي إلى ربي تعالى حاجة فهجرت فيها إلى المسجد، و كذلك كنت أفعل إذا عرضت لي الحاجة، فبينا أنا أصلي في الروضة إذا رجل على رأسي، فقلت: ممن الرجل قال: من أهل الكوفة، قال: فقلت: ممن الرجل فقال: من أسلم، قال: فقلت: ممن الرجل قال: من الزيدية، قلت: يا أخا أسلم من تعرف منهم قال: أعرف خيرهم و سيدهم و أفضلهم هارون بن سعد، قال: قلت: يا أخا أسلم رأس العجلية، أما سمعت الله عز و جل يقول: إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ سَيَنالُهُمْ غَضَبٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَ ذِلَّةٌ فِي الْحَياةِ الدُّنْيا …

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Nasr b. Qabus – Ḥadīth #1

[1/270] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from al-Hasan b. Musa from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr from Sa’id b. Abi al-Jahm from Nasr b. Qabus who said: I said to Abi al-Hasan the first [al-Kadhim] عليه السلام: I had asked Aba Abdillah عليه السلام about the identity of the Imam after him and he informed me that it was going to be you, so when he [al-Sadiq] died the people turned away from you and went to the right and to the left [i.e. in confusion] but I and my companions stuck to you, so inform me about the Imam from your children – who is it going to be? He [the Imam] said: my son Ali عليه السلام. Comments al-Kashshi comments:

فدل هذا الحديث على منزلة الرجل من عقله و اهتمامه بأمر دينه إن شاء الله

This narration indicates the high station of the man in terms of his intellect and his scrupulousness in the matter of his religion, if Allah wills.

I say: Without a doubt Nasr must have been a very close companion of al-Sadiq to have been told the identity of the successor. This led him to avoid falling into error when the Fitna of the Fathiyya occurred.

Another narration in al-Kashshi has the same theme:

حدثني حمدويه قال: حدثني الحسين بن موسى، عن سليمان الصيدي، عن نصر بن قابوس قال: كنت عند أبي الحسن عليه السلام في منزله، فأخذ بيدي فوقفني على بيت من الدار، فدفع الباب فإذا علي عليه السلام ابنه، وفي يده كتاب ينظر إليه، فقال لي: يا نصر تعرف هذا؟ قلت: نعم هذا علي عليه السلام ابنك، قال: يا نصر، أتدري ما هذا الكتاب الذي ينظر فيه؟ فقلت: لا، قال: هذا الجفر الذي لا ينظر فيه إلا نبي أو وصي

قال الحسن بن موسى: فلعمري ما شك نصر فيه ولا ارتاب حتى أتاه وفاة أبي الحسن عليه السلام

Hamduwayh – al-Hasan b. Musa – Sulayman al-Saydi – Nasr b. Qabus who said: I was with Abi al-Hasan عليه السلام in his house when he took me by the hand and made me stand outside a room in the house, then he opened the door and there was Ali his son [inside] with a book in his hand which he was perusing. He [al-Kadhim] said to me: O Nasr – do you know this one? I said: Indeed, it is your son Ali. He said: O Nasr – do you know what that book which he is looking into is? I said: No, he said: that is the Jafr which no one can read except a prophet or a successor.

al-Hasan b. Musa [the sub-narrator] comments: By my life! Nasr never doubted concerning him [al-Ridha] nor did he waver until news about the death of Abi al-Hasan [al-Ridha] came to him i.e. he believed in the Imam all his life.

al-Najashi says about this Nasr b. Qabus:

روى عن أبي عبد الله وأبي إبراهيم وأبي الحسن الرضا عليهم السلام وكان ذا منزلة عندهم

He narrated from Abi Abdillah, Abu Ibrahim and […]

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, al-Mufadhal b. Qays b. Rumana – Ḥadīth #1

[1/269] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Muhammad b. Isa from Ibn Abi Umayr from Mufadhal b. Qays b. Rumana who said: I said to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام: Our companions may differ about something but I say: my opinion in it is the verdict of Ja’far b. Muhammad, so he [the Imam] said: this is what Jibril came down with [revealed]. Comments

The true religion revealed by Jibril is to submit to the judgments of the Prophet and the ‘Aimma, and not to speak by personal opinion.

Ibn Abi Umayr comments on the status of this Mufadhal when giving the chain saying: وكان خيرا (he was righteous).

Not much is known about him, except this other instance of interaction with al-Sadiq as reproduced below:

علي بن محمد وأحمد بن محمد، عن علي بن الحسن، عن العباس بن عامر، عن محمد بن إبراهيم الصيرفي، عن مفضل بن قيس بن رمانة قال: دخلت على أبي عبدالله عليه السلام فذكرت له بعض حالي، فقال: يا جارية هات ذلك الكيس، هذه أربعمائة دينار وصلني بها أبوجعفر فخذها وتفرج بها قال: فقلت: لا والله جعلت فداك ما هذا دهري ولكن أحببت أن تدعوا الله عزوجل لي، قال: فقال: إني سأفعل ولكن إياك أن تخبر الناس بكل حالك فتهون عليهم

al-Kafi: Ali b. Muhammad and Ahmad b. Muhammad from Ali b.al-Hasan from al-Abbas b. Amir from Muhammad b. Ibrahim al-Sayrafi from Mufadhal b. Qays b. Rumana who said: I entered in to see Abi Abdillah عليه السلام and mentioned to him my difficult [material] condition. He [the Imam] said: O servant bring that pouch, [then he said to me:] this is four hundred gold coins given to me by Abu Ja’far [al-Dawaniqi, the Abbasid Caliph] take them and relieve yourself through it. He [Mufadhal] said: I said: No by Allah, may I be made your ransom, this is not my desire [to beg] but I wished that you supplicate to Allah Mighty and Majestic for me. He [the Imam said]: I will do that, but be wary of sharing all that you go through with people for they will look down on you.

[1/269] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن مفضل بن قيس بن رمانة قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: إن أصحابنا يختلفون في شيء وأقول: قولي فيها قول جعفر بن محمد عليه السلام فقال: بهذا نزل جبرئيل

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, al-Mufadhal b. Umar – Ḥadīth #2

[2/268] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Ali b. al-Hakam from Yunus b. Ya’qub who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام ordered me to go to Mufadhal and condole him for [the death of] Ismail. He [the Imam] said: Convey my greetings of peace to Mufadhal and say to him: We have been tried through Ismail and have remained patient, so be patient the way we have been patient. We wanted something but Allah Mighty and Majestic wanted something else so we have submitted to the command of Allah Mighty and Majestic. Comments

Abu Abdallah Mufadhal b. Umar al-Ju’fi (d. before 179), a money-changer by profession, was a Kufan companion of the two Imams, al-Sadiq and al-Kadhim. He was charged with performing certain tasks for them.

No. 1/267 above has the Imam using very harsh language with Mufadhal in the context of the latter’s ‘grooming’ of Ismail which al-Sadiq felt was dangerous. No. 2/268 on the other hand is much more warm, with Ismail being the theme once again. The Imam condoles Mufadhal on the occasion of Ismail’s death [the two must have been especially close] and commends him to be patient in emulation of the Imam’s own patience.   How can we explain this difference in tone?

It seems that one way to reconcile between them is to posit that Mufadhal had a period of estrangement from the Imam – because of his involvement with the Khattabis and their intentions for Ismail, however, he later repented from this and broke away with Abu al-Khattab, consequently the relation with the Imam improved.

[2/268] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن علي بن الحكم، عن يونس بن يعقوب قال: أمرني أبو عبد الله عليه السلام أن آتي المفضل واعزيه باسماعيل وقال: اقرأ المفضل السلام وقل له: إنا قد اصبنا بإسماعيل فصبرنا، فاصبر كما صبرنا، إنا أردنا أمرا وأراد الله عزوجل أمرا، فسلمنا لامر الله عزوجل

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, al-Mufadhal b. Umar – Ḥadīth #1

[1/267] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh b. Nusayr from Ya’qub b. Yazid from Ibn Abi Umayr from Hisham b. al-Hakam and Hammad b. Uthman from Ismail b. Jabir who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: Go to Mufadhal and say to him – O Kafir, O Mushrik, what do you want for my son Ismail? Do you want to kill him!?

[1/267] رجال الكشي: حمدويه بن نصير، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن الحكم وحماد بن عثمان، عن إسماعيل بن جابر قال: قال أبو عبد الله: إئت المفضل قل له: يا كافر يا مشرك ما تريد إلى ابني تريد أن تقتله

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, al-Mughira b. Sai’d – Ḥadīth #2

[1/266] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Qulawayh and al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Bundar al-Qummi from Sa’d b. Abdallah from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Yunus from Hisham b. al-Hakam – that he heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: al-Mughira b. Sa’id used to lie purposely about my father and take the books of his [al-Baqir’s] companions – and his [Mughira’s] companions were under cover [indistinguishable] among the companions of my father – they would take the books from the companions of my father and send them to al-Mughira – so he used to interpolate into them Kufr [disbelief] and Zanadiqa [heresy] and attribute it to my father, then he would send them [the books] back to his companions and order them to establish them among the Shia, so whatever is in the books of the companions of my father – of Ghulu [exaggeration of the status of the ‘Aimma] – then that is what was interpolated by al-Mughira b. Sa’id in their books. Comments

We see how critical this Mughira was in circulating fabricated Hadith by attributing them to al-Baqir and even inserting them into the books of our companions. A lot of these tainted beliefs [which he took from previous religious traditions and repackaged them in a new Islamic language] entered our corpus because of him.

al-Mughira b. Sai’d al-Bajali was a blind Mawla (non-Arab origin) of Khalid al-Qasri the governor of Iraq under the Umayyads. He claimed to be a follower of Imam al-Baqir but perverted the latter’s teachings and drew a personal following around himself. Mughira’s success in this can be explained in part because of his abilities as a sorcerer. He is said to have demonstrated wondrous illusions and tricks.

He rose in revolt in 119 AH with another Ghali called Bayan b. Sam’an against the aforementioned Umayyad governor of Iraq. The rebellion was quickly put down and the leaders as well as some of their followers were crucified. In this way the Imam’s curse against him was answered.

[1/266] رجال الكشي: محمد بن قولويه و الحسين بن الحسن بن بندار القمي، عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن يونس، عن هشام بن الحكم أنه سمع أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: كان المغيرة بن سعيد يتعمد الكذب على أبي، و يأخذ كتب أصحابه و كان أصحابه المستترون بأصحاب أبي يأخذون الكتب من أصحاب أبي فيدفعونها إلى المغيرة فكان يدس فيها الكفر و الزندقة و يسندها إلى أبي ثم يدفعها إلى أصحابه فيأمرهم أن يثبتوها في الشيعة، فكلما كان في كتب أصحاب أبي من الغلو فذاك ما دسه المغيرة بن سعيد في كتبهم

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, al-Mughira b. Sai’d – Ḥadīth #1

[1/265] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Qulawayh and al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Bundar al-Qummi from Sa’d b. Abdallah from Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman: One of our companions asked him [Yunus] while I [Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd] was present saying: O Aba Muhammad – how stringent you are in the matter of Hadith and how great is your repudiation of what is narrated by our companions – so what leads you to reject the narrations? He [Yunus] said: Hisham b. al-Hakam narrated to me that he heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: Do not accept a Hadith on our authority except that which agrees with the Qur’an and the Sunna or you find for it a witness [corroboration] from our past narrations, for al-Mughira b. Said – may Allah curse him – has interpolated into the books of the companions of my father [i.e. al-Baqir عليه السلام] narrations which were not narrated by my father. Therefore fear Allah, and do not accept on our authority that which opposes the words of our Lord the Exalted and the Sunna of our prophet صلى الله عليه و آله …

[1/265] رجال الكشي: محمد بن قولويه و الحسين بن الحسن بن بندار القمي، عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن – أن بعض أصحابنا سأله و أنا حاضر – فقال له: يا أبا محمد ما أشدك في الحديث و أكثر إنكارك لما يرويه أصحابنا فما الذي يحملك على رد الأحاديث؟ فقال: حدثني هشام بن الحكم أنه سمع أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: لا تقبلوا علينا حديثا إلا ما وافق القرآن و السنة أو تجدون معه شاهدا من أحاديثنا المتقدمة، فإن المغيرة بن سعيد لعنه الله دس في كتب أصحاب أبي أحاديث لم يحدث بها أبي، فاتقوا الله و لا تقبلوا علينا ما خالف قول ربنا تعالى و سنة نبينا صلى الله عليه و آله …

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Ma’mar b. Abdallah – Ḥadīth #1

[1/-] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father and Muhammad b. Ismail from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan all together from Ibn Abi Umayr from Muawiya b. Ammar from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: The one looking after the sacrificial animal of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله [while going for the farewell Hajj] was Najiya b. Jundab al-Khuzai al-Aslami. The one who shaved the hair of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله in his Hajj was Ma’mar b. Abdallah b. Haratha b. Nasr b. Awf b. Uwayj b. Adi b. Ka’b. He [the Imam] said: When he [Najiya] was shaving the hair of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله during the Hajj – the Quraysh said: O Ma’mar! the ears [i.e. head] of the Messenger of Allah is between your hands and you have a blade in your hand [i.e. you could do anything to him]! Ma’mar said: by Allah I consider it a great favour of Allah on me [that he trusted me so]. He [the Imam] said: Ma’mar was the one who used to saddle the camel for the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله. One time the Messenger of Allah said to him: O Ma’mar the saddle is slack this night, Ma’mar said: May my father and mother be ransomed for you, I had tightened the reigns [of the saddle] as I always do, but one of those who is jealous of my position with you [and your preference for me] – O Messenger of Allah – wished that you substitute me with another [give this work to someone else], so the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: I will never do that. Comments

Ma’mar b. Abdallah al-Adwi al-Qurashi was an early convert to Islam and was part of the second batch of those who made the Hijra to Abysinnia. He later returned to Makka and spent quite some time there before making the Hijra to Madina. This narration makes clear that he had an estimable standing with the prophet who held him dear. The prophet trusted him to perform some private duties for him because of his simple but strong faith. Not much else is known about his life.

[-/1] الكافي: علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، ومحمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن معاوية بن عمار، عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام قال: الذي كان على بدن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ناجية بن جندب الخزاعي الاسلمي والذي حلق رأس النبي صلى الله عليه وآله في حجته معمر بن عبدالله بن حراثة بن نصر بن عوف بن عويج بن عدي بن كعب، قال: ولما كان في حجة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وهو يحلقه، قالت قريش أي معمر! اذن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله في يدك وفي يدك الموسى، فقال معمر: والله إني لاعده من الله فضلا عظيما علي، قال: وكان معمر هو الذي يرحل لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله فقال رسول الله: يا معمر إن الرحل الليلة […]

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