al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān

/al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur'ān

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #12

Rabīʿ al-Abrār:

A man asked Jaʿfar bin Moḥammed عليه السلام: ‘What is the proof of Allāh? However don’t use the world, or demonstrations nor substances within the earth [as your proof].’
He replied: ‘Have you sailed the sea?’
He said: ‘Yes.’
He replied: ‘Has the wind blown upon you, such that it caused you to be fearful of drowning?’
He said: ‘Yes.’
He replied: ‘Was your hope cut off from the people aboard the boat and the sailors?’
He said: ‘Yes.’
He replied: ‘Did there occur within yourself that impulse to call upon one who could rescue you?’
He said: ‘Yes.’
The Imam then said: ‘That [which you called upon] is Allāh, Exalted and High. Allāh has said: lost are [all] those you invoke except for Him, then when adversity touches you,1 to Him you cry for help.2

1. Al-Isrā’ 17:67
2. Al-Naḥl 16:53

 ربيع الأبرار للزمخشري : قال : قال رجل لجعفر بن محمد ( عليهما السلام ) : ما الدليل على الله ، ولا تذكر لي العالم والعرض والجواهر ؟ فقال له : هل ركبت البحر ؟ قال : نعم . قال : فهل عصفت بكم الريح ، حتى خفتم الغرق ؟ قال : نعم . قال : [ قال : فهل انقطع رجاؤك من المركب والملاحين ؟  قال : نعم . ] قال : فهل تتبعت نفسك أن ثم من ينجيك ؟ قال : نعم . قال : فإن ذاك هو الله سبحانه وتعالى ، قال الله : عز وجل : ضَلَّ مَنْ تَدْعُونَ إِلَّا إِيَّاه  وإِذا مَسَّكُمُ الضُّرُّ فَإِلَيْه تَجْئَرُونَ

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #11

Tafsīr al-Imām Abī Moḥammed al-ʿAskari عليه السلام who said:

al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام said: At times, some of our Shiʿa neglect saying In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), at the commencement of his affairs, so Allāh, Mighty and Majestic, tests him with difficulties, in order that He alerts him to be grateful to Allāh, Blessed and High, and praise him; and so that the stain of his shortcomings is erased, when he neglected saying In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).
ʿAbd Allāh bin Yaḥya entered upon ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn عليه السلام and in front of him was a chair. He ordered him to be seated on it, so he sat upon it, whereupon it tilted until he fell upon his head, and a bone from his head was exposed, and the blood flowed. ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn عليه السلام ordered for water and washed off that blood from him.
Then he said: ‘Come near me’. So he went near him, and he placed his hand upon its place of injury, where he had felt from its pain what he could not be patient with, and he wiped his hand upon it, and spat in it – so from that it healed and came to be as if it had not been hit by anything at all.
‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn عليه السلام then said: ‘Oh ʿAbd Allāh! All Praise is for Allāh, who made the purification of the sins of our Shiʿas in the worldly life, by testing them – in order to secure their obedience for them and they would be deserving of its reward.’
ʿAbd Allāh bin Yaḥya said: ‘Oh ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn! Verily, would we not be recompensed for our sins except in this worldly life?’
He said: ‘Yes. Have you not heard the words of The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله: ‘This worldly life is a prison of the believer, and paradise for the disbeliever’? Indeed, Allāh has purified our Shiʿas from their sins in this worldly life, with what they would be engulfed in from the tests, and with what would be forgiven for them; for indeed, Allāh, the High, says: And whatever affliction befalls you, it is on account of what your hands have brought forth, and yet He Pardons most (of your faults)1, to the extent that when they arrive on the Day of Judgment, their acts of obedience and their acts of worship, would be abundantly present for them. And as for our enemies, they would be recompensed upon the acts of obedience from them in this worldly life – even though there was no weight to it, because there is no sincerity along with it – until when they come to the Day of Judgment, their sins would be loaded upon them, and their hatred towards Moḥammed and his progeny صلوات الله عليهم أجمعين and his elite companions. Thus, due to that, they would be flung into the fire.’
So ʿAbd Allāh bin Yaḥya said, ‘Oh ‘Amīr […]

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #10

al-ʿAyyāshi: From Hasan bin Kharzan, who said:

I wrote to al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام asking him about the meaning of ‘Allāh’, He replied: He has authority over what is minute and what is grand.1

1. Here the Imām عليه السلام explains the meaning of Allāh by stating that His authority embraces everything, even:
a) that which is minute (i.e. small) – even that which cannot be seen by the naked eye, like atoms, which can only be seen by a microscope.
b) that which is grand (i.e. big) – such as the planets and galaxies.
In other words there’s nothing that is outside His authority and power as the Qur’ān states many times: ‘Indeed Allah is over all things powerful’.

عن الحسن بن خرزاذ ، قال : كتبت إلى الصادق ( عليه السلام ) أسأل عن معنى الله . فقال : استولى على ما دق وجل

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #09

al-ʿAyyāshi: From ʿAbd Allāh bin Sinān:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام on the interpretation of In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), he said:
The [letter] bā’ (الباء) [in bism (بسم), stands for the] Bahā’1 of Allāh.
The sīn (السين) [stands for] Sanā’2 of Allāh.
The mīm (الميم) [stands for] Majd3 of Allāh.
It was narrated in a different manner [in which mīm (الميم) means] Mulk4 of Allāh.
Allāh [means that he] is The God of all things.
The meaning of The Entirely Merciful (al-Raḥmān), [is that] His Mercy embraces all creation.
The meaning of The Especially Merciful (al-Raḥīm), [is that] His Mercy is exclusively for the Believers.
And it was narrated in a different manner that Allah is the god of all things.

 

1. Beauty and Magnificence.
2. Splendour and Radiance of Beauty.
3. Glory and Honour.
4. Sovereignty and Authority over all creation.

العياشي : عن عبدالله بن سنان ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ، في تفسير * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * فقال : الباء بهاء الله ، والسين سناء الله ، والميم مجد الله – ورواه غيره عنه : ملك الله – والله إله الخلق ، الرحمن بجميع العالم ، الرحيم بالمؤمنين خاصة » . ورواه غيره عنه : « والله إله كل شيء

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #08

Maʿāni al-Akhbār & Al-Tawḥīd: It was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin al-Qāsim al-Jurjāni the exegete (al-Mufassir) رحمه الله, who said – it was narrated to us by Abū Yaʿqūb Yūsif bin Moḥammed bin Ziyād, and Abū al-Ḥassan ʿAlī bin Moḥammed bin Sayyār – who were from the Imami Shiʿas via their parents:

From al-Ḥassan bin ʿAlī bin Moḥammed عليهم السلام, in regards to the words of Allāh, Mighty and Majestic: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), he said: He is Allāh, the One which every creation resorts to when in need and struggle; and when the hope in those other than Him is lost; and connection with all others is cut, except with him – you say: In the name of Allāh (Bismillah), meaning, I seek aid in all my affairs from Allāh, the One – who none other is deserving of worship except to Him; the One who gives succour to the one who asks for succour; and the One who answers if is called upon.
This is the like of what a man said to al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام: ‘Oh son of the Messenger of Allāh, guide me to Allāh – what is He? For there is an abundance of disputants and they have confused me.’
He replied to him: ‘Oh servant of Allāh, have you ever sailed in a ship?’
He said: ‘Yes.’
He [al-Ṣādiq] said: ‘Has it ever been damaged, where there was no ship to save you, nor swimming to avail you?’
He replied: ‘Yes.’
al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام said: ‘So did your heart cling on to something out there that [you felt] was capable of liberating you from your troubles?’
He replied: ‘Yes.’
al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام said: ‘That thing [your heart clung onto] is Allāh, the One capable to save you when there are no saviors, and capable to give succour when there are no others to give succour.’
Then al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام said: At times, some of our Shiʿa neglect saying In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), at the commencement of his affairs, so Allāh, Mighty and Majestic, tests him with difficulties, in order that He alerts him to be grateful to Allāh, Blessed and High, and praise him; and so that the stain of his shortcomings is erased, when he neglected saying In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).
He (the narrator) said: ‘A man approached ʿAlī bin al-Ḥussain عليه السلام, and said: Inform me of the meaning of In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm)?’
ʿAlī bin al-Ḥussain عليه السلام said: ‘It was narrated to me by my father, from his brother al-Ḥassan, from his father, ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn عليه السلام, that a man appraoched him, and said: Oh ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn, inform me about In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), what does it mean?’
He said: ‘Your saying: ‘Allāh’, is the greatest name from the names of […]

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #07

Maʿāni al-Akhbār: And from him, who said – it was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin Ibrāhīm bin ‘Isḥāq al-Ṭālqāni رضي الله عنه, who said – it was reported to us by Aḥmed bin Moḥammed ibn Saʿīd, the servent of Bani Hāshim, from ʿAlī bin al-Ḥassan bin Fadhāl, from his father:

I asked al-Ridha, ʿAlī bin Mūsa عليه السلام, about In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm)?
He replied: The meaning of the one saying ‘In the name of Allāh’ is ‘I brand myself with one of the brands of Allāh, Mighty and Majestic’, which is worship.1
He said: I said to him: What is the brand?
He replied: A mark.

1. That is, God’s brand with which a person brands himself in every affair is worship in reality and not merely in word and deed. This brand is a mark between him and his Lord by which he knows the truth from falsehood.

 وعنه ، قال : حدثنا محمد بن إبراهيم بن إسحاق الطالقاني ( رضي الله عنه ) ، قال : أخبرنا أحمد بن محمد ابن سعيد مولى بني هاشم ، عن علي بن الحسن بن فضال ، عن أبيه ، قال : سألت الرضا علي بن موسى ( عليه السلام ) عن * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * فقال : معنى قول القائل : بسم الله ، أي : أسمي على نفسي سمة من سمات الله عز وجل وهي العبادة  . قال : فقلت له : وما السمة ؟ قال : العلامة

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #06

Maʿāni al-Akhbār: And from him, he said – it was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin al-Ḥassan bin Aḥmed bin al-Walīd, who said – it was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin al-Ḥassan al-Ṣaffār, from al-ʿAbbās bin Maʿrūf, from Ṣafwān bin Yaḥya, from the one who narrated to him:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام, who was asked about In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), so he replied: The [letter] bā’ (الباء) [in bism (بسم), stands for the] Bahā’1 of Allāh.
The sīn (السين) [stands for] Sanā’2 of Allāh.
The mīm (الميم) [stands for] Mulk3 of Allāh.
He said: So I said: [And] Allāh?
He replied: The alif (الألف) [stands for] Ālā’ (blessings) of Allāh upon his creations through our authority (wilāyah).
The lām (اللام) [stands for] ilzām (obligating) His creatures to our authority.
I said: And the hā’ (الهاء)?
He said: It is abasement for those who oppose Moḥammed and the family of Moḥammed صلوات الله عليهم أجمعين.
I said: [And] al-Raḥmān?
He said: It is for all the world .
I said: [And] al-Raḥīm?
He said: It is exclusively for the Believers.

1. Beauty and Magnificence.
2. Splendour and Radiance of Beauty.
3. Sovereignty and Authority over all creation.

وعنه ، قال : حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد ، قال : حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار ، عن العباس بن معروف ، عن صفوان بن يحيى ، عمن حدثه ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) أنه سئل عن * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * ، فقال : الباء بهاء الله ، والسين سناء الله ، والميم ملك الله . قال : قلت : الله ؟ قال : الألف آلاء الله على خلقه من النعيم بولايتنا ، واللام إلزام الله خلقه ولايتنا . قلت : فالهاء ؟ قال : هوان لمن خالف محمدا وآل محمد ( صلوات الله عليهم أجمعين ) . قلت : الرحمن ؟ قال : بجميع العالم . قلت : الرحيم ؟ قال : بالمؤمنين خاصة

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #05

Maʿāni al-Akhbār: Ibn Bābawayh, from his father, who said – it was narrated to us by Aḥmed bin Idrīs, from al-Ḥussain bin ʿAbd Allāh, from Moḥammed bin ʿAbd Allāh, and Mūsa bin ʿUmar, and al-Ḥassan bin ʿAlī bin Abī ʿUthmān, from ibn Sinān, who said:

I asked Abā al-Ḥassan al-Ridha عليه السلام about the ‘Ism (Name), what is it?
He said: [It is] an attribute to the one who is attributed.

ابن بابويه : عن أبيه ، قال : حدثنا أحمد بن إدريس ، عن الحسين بن عبدالله ، عن محمد بن عبد الله ، وموسى بن عمر ، والحسن بن علي بن أبي عثمان ، عن ابن سنان ، قال : سألت أبا الحسن الرضا ( عليه السلام ) عن الاسم ، ما هو ؟ فقال : صفة لموصوف

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #04

al-Kāfi: And from him, from a number of our companions, from Aḥmed bin Moḥammed al-Barqi, from al-Qāasim bin Yaḥya, from his grandfather al-Ḥassan ibn Rāshid:

From Abī al-Ḥassan Mūsa bin Jaʿfar عليه السلام, who said: He [al-Kādhum] was asked about the meaning of Allāh.
He replied: He has authority over what is minute and what is grand.1

1. Here the Imām عليه السلام explains the meaning of Allāh by stating that His authority embraces everything, even:
a) that which is minute (i.e. small) – even that which cannot be seen by the naked eye, like atoms, which can only be seen by a microscope.
b) that which is grand (i.e. big) – such as the planets and galaxies.
In other words there’s nothing that is outside His authority and power as the Qur’ān states many times: ‘Indeed Allah is over all things powerful’.

وعنه : عن عدة من أصحابنا ، عن أحمد بن محمد البرقي ، عن القاسم بن يحيى ، عن جده الحسن ابن راشد ، عن أبي الحسن موسى بن جعفر ( عليه السلام ) قال : سئل عن معنى الله ، فقال : استولى على ما دق وجل

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #03

al-Kāfi: And from him, from ʿAlī bin Ibrāhīm, from al-Nadhr bin Suwīd, from Hishām bin al-Ḥakam:1

[Hishām bin al-Ḥakam] asked Abā ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام about the Names of Allāh, and their Derivatives, and from what has ‘Allāh’ been derived from?
He عليه السلام  said: Oh Hishām, ‘Allāh’ has been derived from ‘ilāh’ (god) and the ‘ilāh’ necessitates a ma’lūh2. The Name is not the same as the Named, so whoever who worships the Name without the Meaning has blasphemed, and has [in fact] not worshipped anything! And whoever worships the Name and the Meaning [together], has associated [partners with Allāh], and has [in fact] worshipped two. And whoever has worships the Meaning without the Name – so that is Tawḥīd (Divine Unity). Do you understand, Oh Hishām?
I said: Teach me more (lit. increase me).
He عليه السلام said: For Allāh is ninety nine Names. Had the Name been [the same as] the Named, then every one of them would be a god. On the contrary, ‘Allāh’ is the meanings in which is indicated by these names, and all of these [Names] are other than Him. Oh Hishām, the bread is the name of something that’s eaten, and the water is the name of something that you drink, and the dress is the name of something that is worn, and the fire is a name of something that burns. Do you understand, Oh Hishām? An understanding by which you can defend with, and compete with, against the enemies of Allāh – those that take alongside Allāh others?
I said: Yes
He said: May Allāh benefit you by it and keep you steadfast, Oh Hishām.
Hishām said: By Allāh, no one defeated me in the topic of Tawḥīd, since then until now.

1. al-Majlisi says the ḥadīth has a good (Ḥassan) chain. (Mir’āt al-ʿUqūl, Volume 2, Page 39, Ḥadīth #2)
2. Servant or worshipper.

وعنه : عن علي بن إبراهيم ، عن النضر بن سويد ، عن هشام بن الحكم أنه سأل أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) عن أسماء الله واشتقاقها ، والله مم هو مشتق ؟ فقال : « يا هشام ، الله مشتق من إله ، والإله يقتضي مألوها ، والاسم غير المسمى ، فمن عبد الاسم دون المعنى فقد كفر ولم يعبد شيئا ، ومن عبد الاسم والمعنى فقد أشرك وعبد اثنين ، ومن عبد المعنى دون الاسم فذاك التوحيد ، أفهمت يا هشام ؟ » . قال : قلت زدني . قال : « لله تسعة وتسعون اسماء ، فلو كان الاسم هو المسمى لكان كل اسم منها إلها ، ولكن الله معنى يدل عليه بهذه الأسماء ، وكلها غيره . يا هشام ، الخبز اسم للمأكول ، والماء اسم للمشروب ، والثوب اسم للملبوس ، والنار اسم للمحرق ، أفهمت – يا هشام – فهما تدفع به وتناضل به أعداء الله ، المتخذين مع الله عز وجل غيره ؟ » . قلت : نعم ، فقال : « نفعك الله به وثبتك ، يا هشام » . قال هشام : فو الله ما قهرني أحد في التوحيد حتى […]

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