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Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Sa`sa`a b. Suhan – Ḥadīth #1

[1/179] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Abu Ja`far Hamdan b. Ahmad from Muawiya b. Hukaym from Ahmad b. Abi Nasr who said: I was with Abi al-Hasan the Second عليه السلام – when he stood and shook the bed-wrap by his own hand [to remove the dust and get it ready for me to sleep on] and said to me: O Ahmad the commander of the faithful عليه السلام visited Sa`sa`a b. Suhan in his illness and said: O Sa`sa`a do not take my visiting you as a source of pride over your people, he [the Imam] said: when the commander of the faithful عليه السلام had said these words to Sa`sa`a  – Sa`sa`a said: indeed, by Allah I will count it as a divine grace from Allah on me and a favour. Then the commander of the faithful عليه السلام said to him: I have not known you except as one scanty in resources yet great in support [of the truth] so Sa`sa`a said: and you O commander of the faithful I have not known you except cognizant of Allah and to the believers both compassionate and merciful. Comments

Sa`sa`a b. Suhan (d. 60) was one of the closest companions of Ali. He had a lofty genealogy within his tribe of Abd al-Qays which originated from Bahrayn. Even before the Khilafa of Ali, he was already noted for his opposition to Uthman in Kufa and was exiled by its governor to Sham together with prominent companions who later came to form the nucleus of Ali’s closest followers including Malik b. Ashtar al-Nakhai.

Sa`sa`a participated in the battles of Jamal, Siffin and Nahrawan but he was most famous for his consummate oratory and his poems about Ali are well known. His meetings with Muawiya as an emissary to him before battle and after his accession are legendary. He never stopped extolling Ali’s merit and failed to accept any other leader after him.

One only needs to consider what al-Sadiq is attributed to say about him to gleam his status:

محمد بن مسعود، قال حدثني علي بن محمد قال حدثني محمد بن أحمد بن يحيى، عن العباس بن معروف، عن أبي محمد الحجال، عن داود بن أبي يزيد قال: قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: ما كان مع أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام من يعرف حقه إلا صعصعة و أصحابه

Muhammad b. Masud – Ali b. Muhammad – Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Yahya – al-Abbas b. Maruf – Abi Muhammad al-Hajjal – Dawud b. Abi Yazid who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: there was no one with the commander of the faithful عليه السلام who recognized his right (i.e. Imama) except Sa`sa`a and his associates.

I recount here an episode he had with Uthman when the delegations all converged in Madina demanding the besieged Caliph to renounce his family members and rectify his conduct. It reflects his quick wit, turn of phrase and deep understanding of the Qur`an at a very young age to be chosen to […]

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Salih b. Muhammad b. Sahl – Ḥadīth #1

[1/178] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Ya`qub from Ali b. Ibrahim from his father who said: I was with Abi Ja`far the Second [al-Jawad] عليه السلام when Salih b. Muhammad b. Sahl entered to see him – and he [Salih] used to oversee the Waqf [endowments] for him in Qum – he [Salih] said: O my master! relieve me and do not hold me to account over ten thousand [Dirhams] for I have spent it, he [the Imam] said to him: you are relieved [not liable to hand it over]. When Salih had left Abu Ja`far عليه السلام said: one of them receives the wealth which is the right of the family of Muhammad, their orphans, poor, needy, travelers who are stranded – takes it [for himself] then comes and says: ‘relieve me’. Look at him – he thought that I would say: ‘no I will not’, by Allah! Allah will ask them about that on the day of judgment with a swift reckoning. Comments

Sahl, a Wakil of the Imam in Qum, comes to the Imam of his own volition asking ten thousand of the collected amount to be overlooked as it has been used – expecting the Imam to refuse and almost asking for the rift. But the Imam does the opposite which must have caught him by surprise.

This is explained away as Maslaha [greater public good] since there was nothing preventing Salih – after being refused permission – to disappear away with the rest of the money and leave the Imam stranded. The Imam was forced to appease him and accept the minor loss so as to keep him on board i.e. allow him to get away with it while still being under the shadow of the Imam who can then recoup the greater amount at a later date.

This is the Madhlumiyat of the latter `Aimma of the final period who were under constant surveillance and far away geographically from the regional centers which meant having to depend on agents. Some of these were unscrupulous [corrupted by power] and could behave in this way with them. There were some Wukala who cultivated prestige and power and the Imam had to be careful in response to them so as not to let them to use their clout to misguide followers.

One also has to understand that the Imam has full sovereignty with that money and he can forgive such misuses. But he reminds us that Allah may not act so favourably.

[1/178] الكافي: محمد بن يعقوب، عن علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه قال: كنت عند أبي جعفر الثاني عليه السلام إذ دخل عليه صالح بن محمد بن سهل، وكان يتولى له الوقف بقم، فقال: يا سيدي اجعلني من عشرة آلاف في حل فإني أنفقتها، فقال له: أنت في حل، فلما خرج صالح، قال أبو جعفر عليه السلام: أحدهم يثب على أموال حق آل محمد وأيتامهم ومساكينهم وفقرائهم وأبناء سبيلهم فيأخذه ثم يجئ فيقول: اجعلني في حل، أتراه ظن أني أقول: لا أفعل؟ والله ليسألنهم الله يوم […]

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Sahl b. Hunayf – Ḥadīth #1

[1/-] al-Tahdhib: al-Mufid from Abi al-Qasim Ja`far b. Muhammad from his father from Sa`d b. Abdallah from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Muhammad b. Ismail b. Bazi` from Ali b. al-Nu`man from Abi Maryam al-Ansari who said: I heard Aba Ja`far عليه السلام saying: … Ali عليه السلام enshrouded Sahl b. Hunayf in a red Hibara cloak. Comments

Hibara is a type of fine cloth made of cotton in the Yaman. Ali used it for the prophet and later al-Hasan b. Ali used it for Usama b. Zayd.

Another special honour which Ali reserved for Sahl is making a multiple of five Takbirat over his body [in the Salat al-Mayyit]. This was only done for truly great individuals, for instance, the prophet did the same for his uncle Hamza.

محمد بن مسعود، عن محمد بن نصير، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن حماد، عن الحلبي، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: كبر علي عليه السلام على سهل بن حنيف و كان بدريا خمس تكبيرات، ثم مشى به ساعة ثم وضعه ثم كبر عليه خمس تكبيرات أخر، فصنع به ذلك حتى بلغ خمسا و عشرين تكبيرة

Muhammad b. Masud Muhammad b. Nusayr Muhammad b. Isa Ibn Abi Umayr Hammad al-Halabi Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: Ali عليه السلام made over Sahl b. Hunayf – who was a Badri –  five Takbirs [in the first Salat al-Mayyit]. Then he walked with him [in the procession of his body] for a while, before putting him down again and making five other Takbirs over him. He kept on doing that to him until it reached twenty five Takbirs [he prayed five different Salats for him – each with five Takbirs].

Sahl was an Ansari companion of the prophet who fought at Badr and was among the handful of companions who remained defending the prophet at Uhud. The prophet gave him and Abu Dujana the Fayy of Banu Nadhir, the only two Ansaris to be given it, because of their poverty. Sahl was loyal to Ali who made him his governor designate over Syria. This was when Ali reversed the Quraysh-first policy of his predecessors who had sidelined the Ansar despite there being among them men who had precedence in Islam and had given more sacrifice than the Tulaqa aristocracy. Sahl also fought by Ali’s side at Jamal and Siffin.

[-/1] التهذيب: المفيد، عن أبي القاسم جعفر بن محمد، عن أبيه، عن سعد بن عبدالله، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن محمد بن اسماعيل بن بزيع، عن علي بن النعمان، عن أبي مريم الانصاري قال: سمعت أبا جعفر عليه السلام يقول: … وان عليا عليه السلام كفن سهل بن حنيف في برد احمر حبرة

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Simak b. Kharasha – Ḥadīth #1

[1/-] Ilal al-Sharai: Ahmad b. Ziyad b. Ja`far al-Hamdani from Ali b. Ibrahim b. Hashim from his father from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Abi Nasr al-Bazanti and Muhammad b. Abi Umayr from Aban b. Uthman from Abi Abdillah عليه السلام who said: All the companions of the messenger of Allah ran away on the day of Uhud – no one was left among them except Ali b. Abi Talib عليه السلام and Abu Dujana Simak b. Kharasha. The prophet صلى الله عليه وآله said to him: O Aba Dujana – don’t you see your people? he said: I do, he said: join up with them, he said: this is not what I gave my pledge of allegiance to Allah and His messenger for! he said: you are released [from your pledge], he said: by Allah the Quraysh will never get the opportunity to say that I abandoned you and ran away until I taste what you taste! Then the prophet صلى الله عليه وآله prayed for a good recompense for him. Whenever a group used to attack the messenger of Allah – Ali عليه السلام would face them and repel them until he had killed a large number of them and injured others. He continued this way until his sword broke so he came to the prophet صلى الله عليه وآله and said: O messenger of Allah – a man can only fight with his weapon but my sword has broken! So he (the prophet) gave him his sword Dhu al-Fiqar and he (Ali) kept on defending the prophet using it until marks [wound traces] were inflicted on him and he became unrecognizable [because of a multitude of injuries]. Jibril descended and said: O Muhammad this is an incomparable support from Ali to you! so the prophet said: he is from me and I am from him, Jibril said: and I am from you both, and they heard a voice from heaven saying: there is no sword but Dhu al-Fiqar and the there is no young champion except Ali. Comments

With the notable exception of Ali, Abu Dujana and a few others whose names can be found in the history books, most of the companions fled on the day of Uhud including the big wigs. Something which must remain a source of eternal shame to them who left their prophet exposed.

Note that the prophet tests Abu Dujana’s loyalty by giving him a chance to leave but does not do this to Ali. the reasoning is simple, Abu Dujana was after a foreigner in some sense while Ali is from and of the prophet.

Abu Dujana was from the Banu Sa`ida of the Ansar. He was a famed warrior who showed bravery in all the battles including Badr. He used to wear a red hand-band as a sign of distinction in the field. Abu Dujana died in 12 AH in the battle of Yamama.

[-/1] علل الشرائع: أحمد بن زياد بن جعفر الهمداني، عن علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن […]

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Sukayn al-Nakhai – Ḥadīth #1

[1/177] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from al-Fadhl b. Shadhan from Ibn Abi Umayr from Ibrahim b. Abd al-Hamid who said: I made the Hajj with Sukayn al-Nakhai who became engrossed in worship [devoted himself to asceticism] and abandoned women, perfume, good clothes, good food, and used not to raise his head to look up at the sky when in the Masjid [out of fear of Allah]. When he (Sukayn) reached Madina [after making the Hajj] he came near to Abu Ishaq (al-Sadiq) عليه السلام and prayed by his side [in the Masjid of the prophet] then he said: may I be made your ransom – I want to ask you a few questions? He عليه السلام said: go [back to Kufa] and write them down then send them to me. So he (Sukayn) later wrote: may I be made your ransom, fear of Allah has entered the heart of a man such that he has abandoned [cohabiting with] women, good food, and he cannot raise his head to look at the sky, as for good clothes – he is doubtful about wearing them. So He عليه السلام wrote: as to your words about leaving women then you are well aware what the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم had of women [multiple wives], and as for your words about leaving good food then know that the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم used to eat meat and honey, and as for your words that fear has entered his heart until he cannot raise his head to the sky then he should increase in the recitation of this verse “the patient, the true ones, the obedient ones, those who spend [in the way of Allah], and those who seek forgiveness by dawn” (3:17). Comments

It is undeniable that the prophet loved intimacy with Allah but everything in Islam is in moderation. His devotion to Allah did not stop him from partaking in the affairs of the world, in fact, this is true Zuhd, where one remains in the world and interacts with it, but is constantly in communion with Allah in his heart. It is also true that the believers have not been forbidden to enjoy the good things of this life provided they do not lead to Ghafla. The prophet took comfort in his wives and did eat ‘meat and honey’ as the Imam mentions [increasing their sense of gratitude to Allah thereby], but it should be noted that this diet was the exception since their material status was not very good and Islam wishes us to live lightly without forming crippling attachments with the deceptive allure of this world.

[1/177] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن إبراهيم بن عبد الحميد قال: حججت و سكين النخعي فتعبد و ترك النساء و الطيب و الثياب و الطعام الطيب و كان لا يرفع رأسه داخل المسجد إلى السماء فلما قدم المدينة دنا من أبي إسحاق فصلى […]

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Salim b. Mukram – Ḥadīth #3

[1/176] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud said: I asked Aba al-Hasan Ali b. al-Hasan [b. Ali b. Fadhal] about the name of Abi Khadija what was it? he said: it was Salim b. Mukram. I said to him: was he Thiqa? He said: He was Salih. He was a resident of Kufa and was a Cameleer [in the business of renting out camels]. It is said that he was the one who transported [carried on his camels] Aba Abdillah عليه السلام from Makka to Madina. He [Ali b. al-Hasan] said: Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Hashim reported to us from Abi Khadija that Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said to him: do not use Abi Khadija as an agnomen [Kuniyya], he said: what should I use? he said: Abi Salama.

Salim was among the companions of Abu al-Khattab and was inside the Masjid the day that Isa b. Musa b. Ali b. Abdallah b. Abbas – who was the governor of al-Mansur [the Abbasid Caliph] over Kufa – sent forces against Abi al-Khattab, having heard that they had become licentious [permitted the forbidden acts], called the people to accept the prophethood of Abu al-Khattab, and gathered in the Masjid [to plan a revolt] ensconcing themselves in its pillars while making it seem to the people as if they were doing so for purposes of worship. So he [Isa] sent men to them who killed them all, no one from among them escaped except for one man who was injured, fell amidst the dead and was thought to be dead, when night came he stood and disappeared. That man was Abu Salama Salim b. Mukram the Cameleer who also had the Kuniyya of Abu Khadija [before the Imam changed it]. It is said that he repented after this incident [for following Abi al-Khattab] and became among those who narrate the Hadith [from al-Sadiq].

[1/176] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود قال: سألت أبا الحسن علي بن الحسن عن اسم أبي خديجة قال: سالم بن مكرم فقلت له: ثقة؟ فقال: صالح و كان من أهل الكوفة و كان جمالا، و ذكر أنه حمل أبا عبد الله عليه السلام من مكة إلى المدينة قال: أخبرنا عبد الرحمن بن أبي هاشم عن أبي خديجة قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: لا تكتن بأبي خديجة قلت: فبم أكتني فقال: بأبي سلمه


و كان سالم من أصحاب أبي الخطاب، و كان في المسجد يوم بعث عيسى بن موسى بن علي بن عبد الله بن العباس، و كان عامل المنصور على الكوفة إلى أبي الخطاب، لما بلغه أنهم قد أظهروا الإباحات و دعوا الناس إلى نبوة أبي الخطاب، و إنهم يجتمعون في المسجد و لزموا الأساطين يورون الناس أنهم قد لزموها للعبادة، و بعث إليهم رجلا فقتلهم جميعا، لم يفلت منهم إلا رجل واحد أصابته جراحات فسقط بين القتلى يعد فيهم، فلما جنه الليل خرج من بينهم فتخلص، و هو أبو سلمة سالم بن مكرم الجمال الملقب بأبي خديجة، فذكر بعد ذلك أنه تاب و كان ممن يروي […]

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Zayd b. Ali – Ḥadīth #3

[3/175] al-Kafi: Muhammad b. Yahya from Muhammad b. al-Husayn from Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Hashim from Anbasa b. Bijad al-Abdi from Jabir from Abi Ja`far عليه السلام. He [Jabir] said: we were with him [the Imam] when the rulers of Bani Umayya were mentioned so Abu Ja`far عليه السلام said: no one will rebel against Hisham [the Umayyad Caliph] except that he [Hisham] will kill him, he also said: his [Hisham’s] rule will be for twenty years. He [Jabir] said: we were overcome with grief [on hearing that] so he said: what is with you – don’t you know that if Allah Mighty and Majestic wishes to destroy the ruler of a people he orders an angel so he [the angel] journeys swiftly through the celestial sphere and accomplishes what he intends? He [Jabir] said: we relayed these words to Zayd so he said: I witnessed the messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله being abused in the presence of Hisham but he did not repudiate it nor did he put a stop to it – so by Allah if there is no one except myself and my son I would still rise up against him! Comments

This narration and many other like it confirm the fact that the `Aimma had a book which listed all the rulers who will arise before Qiyama and the period of their rule.

فأسرع بسير الفلك which has been rendered as ‘journeys swiftly through the celestial sphere’ seems to be a metaphor the implication of which is not grasped fully. Falak denotes anything circular, specifically the place of the revolving of the stars. I am sure that the scientists among us will claim to read Inter-galactic space travel through a black-hole into this.

Zayd explains his honourable claim for rising against Hisham. There is not doubt that Zayd was a great scholar and a very pious individual who had a great concern for Islam. How could he do nothing after seeing with his own eyes the disrespect that these supposed successors of the prophet had for his great grandfather. Someone who evinces no reaction when the prophet is abused is considered a disbeliever!

[3/175] الكافي: محمد بن يحيى، عن محمد بن الحسين، عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي هاشم، عن عنبسة بن بجاد العابد، عن جابر، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: كنا عنده وذكروا سلطان بني أمية فقال أبو جعفر عليه السلام: لا يخرج على هشام أحد إلا قتله، قال: وذكر ملكه عشرين سنة، قال: فجزعنا، فقال: مالكم إذا أراد الله عز وجل أن يهلك سلطان قوم أمر الملك فأسرع بسير الفلك فقدر على ما يريد؟ قال: فقلنا لزيد عليه السلام هذه المقالة، فقال: إني شهدت هشاما ورسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله يسب عنده فلم ينكر ذلك ولم يغيره فوالله لو لم يكن إلا أنا وابني لخرجت عليه!

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Zayd b. Ali – Ḥadīth #2

[2/-] al-Kafi: A number of our companions from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa from Ali b. al-Hakam from Aban who said: al-Ahwal reported to me saying: Zayd b. Ali b. al-Husayn عليهما السلام sent for me while he was in hiding so I went to see him. He [Zayd] said to me: O Aba Ja`far [al-Ahwal] what will you say if a knocker from among us [the family of the prophet] knocks on your door [asking for your support to fight the unjust ruler] – would you come out in revolt with him? I said to him: if it is your father [al-Sajjad] or your brother [al-Baqir] I would set out with him. He [Zayd] said to me: Verily I wish to rise up and fight these people so set out with me, I said: No, I will not do so may I be made your ransom, he said to me: do you prefer your life over mine? I said: it is only one soul [that I have] – if Allah does indeed have a Hujja [proof] on the earth [whose existence you deny] then the one who stays back from joining you is saved and the one who joins you is destroyed [for revolting without the permission of the Hujja], but if Allah does not have a Hujja [proof] on the earth [as you claim] then the one who stays back and the one who joins you are both the same. He said to me: O Aba Ja`far I used to sit with my father to share a plate with him so he would feed me the choicest piece of meat and cool for me a hot morsel fearing for my health but he did not fear for me enough to save me from the hell-fire! How could it be that he informed you the truth about the religion [the presence of the Hujja] and did not inform me about it! I said to him: may I be made your ransom – it is only because of his fear of hell-fire for you you that he did not inform you! he feared for you that you would reject it and enter the fire, but he informed me [not caring either way] so if I accept I am saved and he was not bothered that I enter the fire [if I reject]. Then I said to him: may I be made your ransom are you better or the prophets? He said: the prophets, I said: Ya`qub said to Yusuf: “O my son – do not relate your dream to your brothers for they will devise a plot against you” (12:5) why not inform them and expect them not to devise a plot against him but rather he was to keep it a secret from them [so as not to tempt them]? the same way your father kept it a secret from you because he feared for you. He said: by Allah! now that you mention that – your man [the […]

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Zayd b. Ali – Ḥadīth #1

[1/174] al-Kafi: Ali b. Ibrahim from his father from Safwan b. Yahya from Iys b. al-Qasim who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: upon you is to fear God alone who Has no partner, and to be on the lookout for yourselves, for by Allah a man may possess a flock over which he places a shepherd, but when he discovers another man who is more knowledgeable about caring for his flock than the one in place he removes the latter and replaces him with that man who is more knowledgeable about his flock than the one who was previously taking care of it. If one of you had two souls, one of which he could fight with and risk it, while the other remains alive safe to use to act upon the truth that has become clear to him [then it would have been fine], but he has only one soul – if it is lost then by Allah the opportunity for repentance is also lost. You are best placed to make  decisions for yourselves, if a comer comes to you from us [the people of the House] then scrutinize what things are you coming out in revolt over exactly, and do not say ‘Zayd revolted’ [to justify yourselves] for Zayd was a scholar and truthful, moreover he did not call you for his own sake rather he called you to rally around the Rida [pleasing choice] from the family of Muhammad [i.e. the Imam], and had he become victorious he would have followed through on what he had called you to. But the one who revolts from among us today to what thing is he calling you to? is it to the pleasing choice from the family of Muhammad?! if so then we declare that we are not pleased with him! and if he is disobeying us about this today when he has no following then how much more emboldened will he be to ignore and not listen to us when the banners and the flags [converge around him]! [You are not come out] except with the one around whom the children of Fatima are united over, for by Allah your man is none other than the one around whom they unite. So when it is Rajab then proceed in the name of Allah Mighty and Majestic [to Makka] but if you wish to delay to Sha`ban then there is no harm done and if you prefer to fast in your families then perhaps that is more appropriate for you. Indeed the Sufyani is enough of a sign for you [to indicate the closeness of the appearance]. Comments

The Imam begins by emphasizing that the leader to be the most worthy. If this is true even for mundane human affairs then how much more consequential would it be in critical matters of religion. He then  advises caution against wasting ones precious life over causes that are not divinely sanctioned. He warns against backing pretenders from the Ahl al-Bayt, who were […]

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Ziyad b. al-Mundhir Abu al-Jarud – Ḥadīth #3

[3/-] Uyun al-Akhbar: al-Husayn b. Ahmad b. Idris from his father from Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Isa and Ibrahim b. Hashim from al-Hasan b. Mahbub from Abi al-Jarud from Abi Ja`far from Jabir b. Abdallah al-Ansari who said: I entered to meet Fatima عليها السلام and found a tablet in front of her in which were the names of the Awsiya (Heirs). I counted twelve names the last of them being the Qaim عليه السلام. Three of them were Muhammad and four of them had names of Ali عليهم السلام Comments

The two narrations above and others like them form part of the complex of traditions collectively called ‘the Hadith of the Lawh [tablet]’. Some critical scholars have questioned their authenticity giving three reasons:

i. The possibility of al-Hasan b. Mahbub, who was probably born close to the time of al-Sadiq’s death, narrating from senior companions of al-Baqir and al-Sadiq has been questioned. Here he is narrating from Abu al-Jarud who seems to be in the same age range. This raises the suspicion of a hidden intermediary.

ii. More importantly, these Hadiths seem to be polemical in nature. This is because they are putting words in the mouth of a rival leader of the Imamis i.e. Abu al-Jarud of the Jarudi Zaydis, making him acknowledge that the Imams are twelve. But this does not tally with anything we know about the historical  Abu al-Jarud. He is not portrayed as ever coming over to the Twelver view or supporting it in independent records. Instead, in the first narration above, which is reliable, he gets a telling off from al-Sadiq for not acknowledging the Imama of al-Baqir.

iii. al-Bahbudi claims that they are fabrications after the event with the chains being cooked. They originate from a time when the idea of twelve Imams gained currency and was being supported. Otherwise, what could explain the fact that the Shia kept on splintering into multiple sub-sects after the death of each Imam and entered into a period of deep confusion post the Occultation if everything was clear cut and well known as these Hadiths indicate?

The question which Bahbudi has to answer is as follows: How could such a fabrication have entered our corpus when we have an accomplished scholar like al-Saduq narrating them via multiple very strong lower-chains up to al-Hasan b. Mahbub [they authentically go back to him at the very least], and the Matn predicts future events before his [Ibn Mahbub’s] time which panned out as predicted.

[-/3] عيون الاخبار: الحسين بن أحمد بن ادريس، عن أبي، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى و ابراهيم بن هاشم، عن الحسن بن محبوب، عن أبي الجارود، عن أبي جعفر، عن جابر بن عبد الله الانصاري قال: دخلت على فاطمه عليها السلام وبين يديها لوح فيه اسماء الاوصياء فعددت اثنا عشر آخرهم القائم عليه السلام ثلاثه منهم محمد واربعه منهم على عليهم السلامعليهم السلام

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