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Al-‘Āmāli, Al-Shaykh al-Ṣadūq, The Twelfth Assembly – Ḥadīth #1

It was narrated to us by al-Shaykh, al-Faqih al-Ṣadūq (Abū Jaʿfar Moḥammed bin ʿAlī bin al-Ḥussain bin Mūsa bin Bābawayh al-Qummi رضي الله عنه), who said – it was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin al-Ḥassan bin Aḥmed bin al-Walīd رضي الله عنه, who said – it was narrated to us by al-Ḥussain bin al-Ḥassan bin Ābān, from al-Ḥussain bin Saʿīd, from al-Ḥussain bin ʿIlwān, from ʿAmru bin Shimr, from Jābir:

From Abī Jaʿfar al-Bāqir عليه السلام, who said: When The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله would look upon the crescent of the Month of Ramadhān, he would turn his face towards the qibla, and would say: Oh Allāh, welcome it with security and safety upon us, peace and submission, good health and honour, abundant sustenance, removal of illness, recitation of the Qur’ān, and assistance with prayers and fasting. Oh Allāh, give the Month of Ramadhān in safety, and take it back with safety, and make us submissive in it until the Month of Ramadhān finishes and you have forgiven us.
He then turns his face towards the people and says: Oh gathering of Muslims, if the crescent of the Month of Ramadhān emerges, the rebellious devils are chained, and the doors of the heavens, Paradise, and mercy are opened, and the doors of the fire is closed. The supplications are answered and Allāh, Mighty and Majestic, emancipates from the chains from the fire at every break of the fast. A caller will call out each night: ‘Is there any one who requests [his needs]? Is there one who seeks forgiveness? Oh Allāh give reward to all of those who give in charity, and allow those who give in charity lose nothing’; until the crescent of Shawwāl emerges, whereupon the believers are called to: ‘Come take your rewards, for it is the day of [obtaining] rewards.’
Abū Jaʿfar عليه السلام then said: I swear, by the one in whose hands is my life, those rewards are not dinānīr and dirāhim.1 1. Dinānīr and dirāhim: the plural of the common currency used.

حدثنا الشيخ الفقيه أبو جعفر محمد بن علي بن الحسين بن موسى بن بابويه القمي ( رضي الله عنه ) ، قال : حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد ( رضي الله عنه ) ، قال : حدثنا الحسين بن الحسن بن أبان ، عن الحسين بن سعيد ، عن الحسين بن علوان ، عن عمرو بن شمر ، عن جابر ، عن أبي جعفر الباقر ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : كان رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) إذا نظر إلى هلال شهر رمضان ، استقبل القبلة بوجهه ، ثم قال : اللهم أهله علينا بالأمن والايمان ، والسلامة والاسلام ، والعافية المجللة ، والرزق الواسع ، ودفع الأسقام ، وتلاوة القرآن ، والعون على الصلاة والصيام ، اللهم سلمنا لشهر رمضان وسلمه لنا وتسلمه منا حتى ينقضي شهر رمضان وقد غفرت لنا . ثم يقبل بوجهه على الناس فيقول : يا معشر المسلمين ، إذا طلع هلال […]

Al-‘Āmāli, Al-Shaykh al-Ṣadūq, The Thirteenth Assembly – Ḥadīth #1

It was narrated to us by al-Shaykh, al-Faqih al-Ṣadūq (Abū Jaʿfar Moḥammed bin ʿAlī bin al-Ḥussain bin Mūsa bin Bābawayh al-Qummi رضي الله عنه), who said – it was narrated to us by my father رحمه الله, who said – it was narrated to us by Saʿd bin ʿAbd Allāh, from Aḥmed bin al-Ḥussain, from Moḥammed bin Jamhūr, and from Moḥammed bin Ziyād, from the one who heard Moḥammed bin Muslim al-Thaqafi say:

I heard Abā Jaʿfar Moḥammed bin ʿAlī al-Bāqir عليهم السلام say: Indeed with Allāh, Most High, are angels that are commissioned for those who are fasting. They seek forgiveness for them on their behalf every day during the Month of Ramadhān until the end of it. They call out to the fasting people in every night at the time of their breaking of fast: ‘Rejoice oh servant of Allāh, for indeed you have starved a little thus you will be satiated in abundance. You are blessed and blessings upon you’.
When the final night of the Month of Ramadhān comes, they call out: ‘Rejoice oh servant of Allāh, for indeed Allāh has forgiven your sins, and your repentance is accepted, so be cautious in (lit. look at) what is to come in what you carry on with (i.e. your future deeds).

حدثنا الشيخ الجليل أبو جعفر محمد بن علي بن الحسين بن موسى ابن بابويه الفقيه القمي ( رضي الله عنه ) ، قال : حدثنا أبي ( رحمه الله ) ، قال : حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله ، عن أحمد بن الحسين ، عن محمد بن جمهور ، وعن محمد بن زياد ، عمن سمع محمد بن مسلم الثقفي يقول : سمعت أبا جعفر محمد بن علي الباقر ( عليهم السلام ) يقول : إن لله تعالى ملائكة موكلين بالصائمين ، يستغفرون لهم في كل يوم من شهر رمضان إلى آخره ، وينادون الصائمين كل ليلة عند إفطارهم : أبشروا – عباد الله – فقد جعتم قليلا وستشبعون كثيرا ، بوركتم وبورك فيكم ، حتى إذا كان آخر ليلة من شهر رمضان نادوهم : أبشروا – عباد الله – فقد غفر الله لكم ذنوبكم ، وقبل توبتكم ، فانظروا كيف تكونون فيما تستأنفون .

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds … not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. – Ḥadīth #21

Maʿāni al-Akhbār: And from him, who said – it was narrated to us by my father رحمه الله, who said – it was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin Aḥmed bin ʿAlī bin al-Ṣalt, from Yūnis bin ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, from whom he mentioned, from ʿUbayd Allāh al-Ḥalabi:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام, who said: al-Ṣirāṭ al-Mustaqīm1 is ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn, ʿAlī عليه السلام.

1. al-Ṣirāṭ al-Mustaqīm: The Straight Path.

وعنه ، قال : حدثنا أبي ( رحمه الله ) قال : حدثنا محمد بن أحمد بن علي بن الصلت ، عن عبدالله بن الصلت ، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن ، عمن ذكره ، عن عبيد الله الحلبي ، عن أبي عبد الله ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : « الصراط المستقيم أمير المؤمنين علي ( عليه السلام ) » .

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds … not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. – Ḥadīth #20

Maʿāni al-Akhbār: And from him, he said it was narrated to us by Aḥmed bin al-Ḥassan al-Qaṭṭān, who said – it was narrated to us by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān bin Moḥammed al-Ḥussaini, who said – it was reported to us by Abū Jaʿfar Aḥmed bin ʿĪsa bin Abī Maryam al-ʿAjali, who said – it was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin Aḥmed bin ʿAbd Allāh bin Ziyād al-ʿArzami, who said – it was narrated to us by ʿAlī bin Ḥātim al-Manqari, from al-Mufadhal bin ʿUmar, who said:

I asked Abā ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام about the Ṣirāṭ. He replied: It is a path towards the cognizance of Allāh, Mighty and Majestic. They are two Ṣirāṭs. A Ṣirāṭ in this worldly life (al-Dunya), and one in the hereafter (al-Ākhira). As for the Ṣirāṭ that is in this worldly life, it is the Imām whose obedience is made obligatory. Whoever has cognizance of him in this worldly life and followed his guidance, then he will pass over the Ṣirāṭ – which is a bridge over Hell in the hereafter. As for the one who does not have cognizance of him in this worldly life, his feet will slip from the Ṣirāṭ in the hereafter, and will fall into the fire of Hell.

وعنه ، قال : حدثنا أحمد بن الحسن القطان ، قال : حدثنا عبد الرحمن بن محمد الحسيني ، قال : أخبرنا أبو جعفر أحمد بن عيسى بن أبي مريم العجلي ، قال : حدثنا محمد بن أحمد بن عبدالله بن زياد العرزمي ، قال : حدثنا علي بن حاتم المنقري ، عن المفضل بن عمر ، قال : سألت أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) عن الصراط ، فقال : « هو الطريق إلى معرفة الله عز وجل ، وهما صراطان : صراط في الدنيا ، وصراط في الآخرة . فأما الصراط الذي في الدنيا ، فهو الإمام المفترض الطاعة ، من عرفه في الدنيا واقتدى بهداه ، مر على الصراط الذي هو جسر جهنم في الآخرة ، ومن لم يعرفه في الدنيا ، زلت قدمه عن الصراط في الآخرة ، فتردى في نار جهنم » .

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Muhammad b. Abi Zaynab Abu al-Khattab, Hafs, Ja’far b. Waqid, Hashim, Musaylama, Mukhtar, Sa’id, Hamza, Abu al-Ghamr and Others – Ḥadīth #9

[9/-] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Qulawayh and al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Bundar al-Qummi from Sa’d b. Abdallah from Muhammad b. Khalid al-Tayalisi from Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Najran from Ibn Sinan who said: Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said: We the Ahl al-Bayt are always truthful but do not lack a liar lying against us and degrading our truthfulness by his lies to the masses. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم was the most truthful of people in speech but Musaylama used to lie about him. The Commander of the Faithful  عليه السلام was the most truthful of men created by Allah after the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم, but the one who used to lie against him and work in negating his truthfulness by forging things against him was Abdallah b. Saba – may Allah curse him. Abu Abdillah al-Husayn b. Ali عليه السلام was put to trial [afflicted] by al-Mukhtar. Then Abu Abdillah mentioned al-Harith the Syrian and Bayan [b. Sam’an] and said: they used to lie upon Ali b. al-Husayn عليه السلام. Then he mentioned al-Mughira b. Sa’id, Bazi`, al-Sarri, Aba al-Khattab, Muammar, Bashshar the barley seller, Hamza the Berber and Sa’id al-Nahdi and said: May Allah curse them – we do not lack a liar or one deficient in intellect [tormenting us]. May Allah suffice us against ever needing the help of any liar and may Allah make them taste the heat of the sword [put them to the sword]. Comments

A list of Imams with their corresponding opponents is given in this narration.

Each divinely appointed envoy had enemies who opposed him. This is a dualistic principle attested to in the Qur’an.

 وَكَذَلِكَ جَعَلْنَا لِكُلِّ نِبِيٍّ عَدُوًّا شَيَاطِينَ الإِنسِ وَالْجِنِّ

“And thus did We assign for every prophet an enemy, the satans from humans and jinn …” (6:112)

The inescapable conclusion from studying the narration must be that the Ghulat were a perennial bane to all the Imams.

The chain has only been considered unreliable because of Muhammad b. Khalid al-Tayalisi [the father of the Thiqa Abdallah] being Majhul. I would still give it some credence in spite of this. It has wide-reaching ramifications because it identifies Mukhtar b. Abi Ubayda al-Thaqafi as an impostor and the main thorn to al-Husayn’s عليه السلام legacy. A notion that is also found in other narrations.

[-/9] رجال الكشي: محمد بن قولويه و الحسين بن الحسن بن بندار القمي، عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن محمد بن خالد الطيالسي، عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي نجران، عن ابن سنان قال: قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: إنا أهل بيت صادقون لا نخلو من كذاب يكذب علينا فيسقط صدقنا بكذبه علينا عند الناس، كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم أصدق البرية لهجة و كان مسيلمة يكذب عليه، و كان أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام أصدق من برأ الله من بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم و كان الذي يكذب عليه و يعمل في تكذيب صدقه بما يفتري عليه من الكذب […]

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Muhammad b. Abi Zaynab Abu al-Khattab, Hafs, Ja’far b. Waqid, Hashim, Musaylama, Mukhtar, Sa’id, Hamza, Abu al-Ghamr and Others – Ḥadīth #8

[8/237] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Qulawayh and al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Bundar al-Qummi from Sa’d b. Abdallah from Ibrahim b. Mahziyar and Muhammad b. Isa b. Ubayd from Ali b. Mahziyar who said: I hear Aba Ja’far [al-Jawad] عليه السلام say when Abu al-Khattab was mentioned in his presence: May Allah curse Aba al-Khattab, curse his companions, curse those who question his cursing, and curse those who abstain from doing it [cursing him] doubting its propriety. Then he said: Here are Abu al-Ghamr, Ja’far b. Waqid and Hashim b. Abi Hashim! They have used us [our name] to take wealth from the people and have become callers calling the people to what Abu al-Khattab used to call to! May Allah curse him [Abu al-Khattab] and curse them with him, may He curse whoever accepts that from them. O Ali – do not feel any discomfort in cursing them – may Allah curse them – for they have been cursed by Allah. Then he said: the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وآله said: Whoever refrains from cursing the one who is cursed by Allah [considering it a sin] then upon him be the curse of Allah. Comments

Abu al-Khattab’s influence did not die with him, rather the heresiographers record a number of splinters that post-date him, these continued to cherish his memory and develop his heretical ideas further. They included some contemporaries of al-Jawad عليه السلام mentioned above.

[8/237] رجال الكشي: محمد بن قولويه و الحسين بن الحسن بن بندار القمي، عن سعد بن عبد الله، عن إبراهيم بن مهزيار و محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن علي بن مهزيار قال: سمعت أبا جعفر عليه السلام يقول و قد ذكر عنده أبو الخطاب: لعن الله أبا الخطاب و لعن أصحابه و لعن الشاكين في لعنه و لعن من قد وقف في ذلك و شك فيه، ثم قال: هذا أبو الغمر و جعفر بن واقد و هاشم بن أبي هاشم استأكلوا بنا الناس و صاروا دعاة يدعون الناس إلى ما دعي إليه أبو الخطاب، لعنه الله و لعنهم معه و لعن من قبل ذلك منهم، يا علي لا تتحرجن من لعنهم لعنهم الله فإن الله قد لعنهم، ثم قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: من تأثم أن يلعن من لعنه الله فعليه لعنة الله

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Muhammad b. Abi Zaynab Abu al-Khattab, Hafs, Ja’far b. Waqid, Hashim, Musaylama, Mukhtar, Sa’id, Hamza, Abu al-Ghamr and Others – Ḥadīth #7

[7/236] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Muhammad b. Isa from Yunus b. Abd al-Rahman from Ibn Muskan from Isa Shalqan who said: I said to Abi al-Hasan [al-Kadhim] عليه السلام when he was still a boy before he reached puberty: May I be made your ransom, what is this we hear from you father, first he ordered us to associate with Abi al-Khattab then he ordered us to disassociate from him? So Abu al-Hasan عليه السلام said of his own volition: Allah created the prophets on prophethood, so they do not become except prophets. He created the believers on belief, so they do not become except believers. But he deposited belief in a group, so if He wishes He completes it for them, and if He wishes He takes it away from them. Abu al-Khattab was one of those whose faith was loaned out to him by Allah, so when he lied about my father – Allah took away that faith from him. He [Isa] said: I repeated these words to Abi Abdillah عليه السلام so he said: If you had asked us about that [the same question] we would not have anything different to say to you.

[7/236] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن يونس بن عبد الرحمن، عن ابن مسكان، عن عيسى شلقان قال: قلت لأبي الحسن عليه السلام و هو يومئذ غلام قبل أوان بلوغه: جعلت فداك ما هذا الذي يسمع من أبيك أنه أمرنا بولاية أبي الخطاب ثم أمرنا بالبراءة منه؟ قال: فقال أبو الحسن عليه السلام من تلقاء نفسه: إن الله خلق الأنبياء على النبوة فلا يكونون إلا أنبياء و خلق المؤمنين على الإيمان فلا يكونون إلا مؤمنين و استودع قوما إيمانا فإن شاء أتمه لهم و إن شاء سلبهم إياه، و إن أبا الخطاب كان ممن أعاره الله الإيمان فلما كذب على أبي سلبه الله الإيمان، قال: فعرضت هذا الكلام على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: قال: لو سألتنا عن ذلك ما كان ليكون عندنا غير ما قال

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Muhammad b. Abi Zaynab Abu al-Khattab, Hafs, Ja’far b. Waqid, Hashim, Musaylama, Mukhtar, Sa’id, Hamza, Abu al-Ghamr and Others – Ḥadīth #6

[6/235] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Ayyub b. Nuh from Hanan b. Sadir from Abi Abdillah. He [Hanan] said: I was seated at Abi Abdillah’s عليه السلام together with Muyassir – this was in the year one hundred and thirty eight – when Muyassir the seller of clothes made by Jats [of India] said: May I be made your ransom, I am bewildered at a group who used to come with us to this place but their traces have been cut-off and their terms have ended. He [the Imam] said: Who are they? I said: Abu al-Khattab and his fellows [who had been massacred]. He [the Imam] was resting on a cushion but sat up-straight [when he heard me say this] and raised his fingers to the sky and said: Upon Abi al-Khattab be the curse of Allah, His angels and all the people together, for I swear by Allah that he is a Kafir, Fasiq and Mushrik. He will be resurrected with Firaun in the most severe punishment by morning and night [allusion to 40:46]. Then he said: by Allah – I feel pity on the bodies that have entered the fire with him.

[6/235] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن أيوب بن نوح، عن حنان بن سدير، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: كنت جالسا عند أبي عبد الله عليه السلام و ميسر عنده، و نحن في سنة ثمان و ثلاثين و مائة، فقال ميسر بياع الزطي جعلت فداك عجبت لقوم كانوا يأتون معنا إلى هذا الموضع فانقطعت آثارهم و فنيت آجالهم قال و من هم قلت أبو الخطاب و أصحابه، و كان متكئا فجلس فرفع إصبعه إلى السماء ثم قال على أبي الخطاب لعنة الله و الملائكة و الناس أجمعين، فأشهد بالله أنه كافر فاسق مشرك، و أنه يحشر مع فرعون في أشد العذاب غدوا و عشيا، ثم قال أما و الله إني لأنفس على أجساد أصيبت معه النار

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Muhammad b. Abi Zaynab Abu al-Khattab, Hafs, Ja’far b. Waqid, Hashim, Musaylama, Mukhtar, Sa’id, Hamza, Abu al-Ghamr and Others – Ḥadīth #5

[5/234] Rijal al-Kashshi: Hamduwayh from Muhammad b. Isa from al-Nadhr b. Suwayd from Yahya al-Halabi from his father Imran b. Ali who said: I heard Aba Abdillah عليه السلام saying: May Allah curse Aba al-Khattab, may He curse those who were killed with him, may He curse those who are remaining [alive] from them, and may He curse the one to whose heart enters mercy for them. Comments

Abu al-Khattab convinced his followers to revolt and they barricaded themselves in the mosque of Kufa. The governor of Kufa on behalf of al-Mansur [the second Abbasid Caliph] i.e. Isa b. Musa b. Ali b. Abdallah b. al-Abbas sent forces against them which resulted in their massacre. It is in this context that we see the Imam speaking of ‘those who were killed with him’.

[5/234] رجال الكشي: حمدويه، عن محمد بن عيسى، عن النضر بن سويد، عن يحيى الحلبي، عن أبيه عمران بن علي قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: لعن الله أبا الخطاب و لعن من قتل معه و لعن من بقي منهم و لعن الله من دخل قلبه رحمة لهم

Muʿjam al-Aḥādīth al-Muʿtabara, Muhammad b. Abi Zaynab Abu al-Khattab, Hafs, Ja’far b. Waqid, Hashim, Musaylama, Mukhtar, Sa’id, Hamza, Abu al-Ghamr and Others – Ḥadīth #4

[4/233] Rijal al-Kashshi: Muhammad b. Masud from Ali b. al-Hasan from Muammar b. Khallad who said: Abu al-Hasan عليه السلام said: Verily Aba al-Khattab corrupted the people of Kufa so they used not to pray the Maghrib until the redness of the sky disappears, but that is not appropriate except for the traveller or someone who has a problem. He [al-Ridha] also said: A man asked Aba al-Hasan [al-Kadhim] عليه السلام and said: How did it happen that Abu Abdillah عليه السلام said about Abi al-Khattab what he said about him at first [in commissioning him] and then came the command to disassociate from him? So he said to him: Is it only for Abi Abdillah عليه السلام to appoint but not to depose! Comments

It is clear that Abu al-Khattab was teaching that Maghrib should be delayed until the redness in the western horizon disappears and the stars appear. This is contrary to the position of the Madhhab which advices waiting until the redness in the eastern horizon disappears as a precaution.

[4/233] رجال الكشي: محمد بن مسعود، عن علي بن الحسن، عن معمر بن خلاد قال: قال أبو الحسن عليه السلام: إن أبا الخطاب أفسد أهل الكوفة فصاروا لا يصلون المغرب حتى يغيب الشفق و لم يكن ذلك إنما ذاك للمسافر و صاحب العلة، و قال: إن رجلا سأل أبا الحسن عليه السلام فقال: كيف قال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام في أبي الخطاب ما قال ثم جاءت البراءة منه؟ فقال له: أكان لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام أن يستعمل و ليس له أن يعزل

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