Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān

/Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān popularly known as Tafsīr Al-Burhān (تفسير البرهان‌‎‎), is a Shiʿa Muslim tafsir (or exegesis of the Qur’ān) written by Sayyed Hāshim bin Sulaymān bin ‘Ismāʿīl al-Ḥussaini al-Baḥrāni.

There are nearly 14000 exegetical hadiths, narrated from Prophet’s family. It is one of the most important Shiʿa commentaries in the eleventh and early twelfth century A.H. In this commentary that is in traditionary (rawā’i) method, he has explained the subjects of religious sciences, narration, prophet news (meaning the accounts of sayings and deeds of Holy Prophet) and above all, virtues of the Purified Household. Then he has related the Ḥadīths and traditions quoted by Household عليهم السلام and their relations with Qur’ānic verses, below it. Al-Burhān commentary has compiled many news and secrets of Qur’ānic sciences in the field of commentary that has been related in the old unknown books. It also has guided the readers to the many traditions that had been hidden for recent commentators.

al-Fātiḥa

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #01

al-Tahdhīb: Moḥammed bin al-Ḥassan al-Ṭūsi, from Moḥammed bin ʿAlī bin Maḥbūb, from al-ʿAbbas, from Moḥammed bin Abī ʿUmayr, from Abī Ayūb, from Moḥammed bin Muslim1 who said:

I asked Abā ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام about the seven repeated verses2 and the Glorious Qur’ān3 – is the seven repeated verses al-Fātiḥa?
He said: “Yes.”
I then said: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), is that from among the seven verses?
He said: “Yes, and it is the best of them.”

1. The ḥadīth has an authentic (Ṣaḥiḥ) chain.
2. The seven repeated verses (al-Sabʿ al-Mathāni) is usually considered in reference to al-Fātiḥa. Al-Mathāni is more literally translated as twice. Scholars have stated that al-Fātiḥa is given this title because it is repeated twice in every obligatory prayers. The other opinion is that it was revealed twice, once in Mekka and once in Medina.
3. al-Fātiḥa and the Qur’ān are mentioned separately, to show the greatness and significance of al-Fātiḥa itself – as Allāh mentions in the Qur’ān, al-Ḥijr (15:87) لقد ءاتيناك سبعا من المثاني و القران العظيم (Indeed we have given you the seven often repeated verses and the Glorious Qur’ān).

التهذيب: محمد بن الحسن الطوسي ، بإسناده عن محمد بن علي بن محبوب ، عن العباس ، عن محمد بن أبي عمير ، عن أبي أيوب ، عن محمد بن مسلم ، قال: سألت أبا عبدالله (عليه السلام) عن السبع المثاني والقرآن العظيم ، أهي الفاتحة؟ .  قال: نعم.  قلت: ( بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ) من السبع؟  قال: نعم  ، هي أفضلهن

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #02

al-Tahdhīb: And from him, with his chain, from Moḥammed bin al-Ḥussain, from Moḥammed bin Ḥamād bin Zayd, from ʿAbd Allāh bin Yaḥya al-Kāhili:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام who said: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) is closer to the Greatest Name of Allāh than the pupil is to the whiteness of the eye.

عنه : بإسناده عن محمد بن الحسين ، عن محمد بن حماد بن زيد ، عن عبدالله بن يحيى الكاهلي ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ )  أقرب إلى اسم الله الأعظم من ناظر العين إلى بياضها

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #03

ʿUyūn Akhbār al-Ridha & al-‘Āmāli: Moḥammed bin ʿAlī bin Bābawayh, who said – it was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin al-Qāsim al-Mufassir, known as Abī al-Ḥassan al-Jarjāni رضي الله عنه, who said – it was narrated to me by Yūsuf bin Moḥammed bin Ziyād, and ʿAlī bin Moḥammed bin Sayār, from Abuwayhama, from al-Ḥassan ibn ʿAlī, from his father ʿAlī bin Moḥammed, from his father Moḥammed bin ʿAlī, from his father al-Ridha, ʿAlī bin Mūsa, from his father, from his forefathers:

From ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn عليهم السلام who said: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), is a verse from the Opening of the Book (i.e. al-Fātiḥa) and it is seven verses. Its completion is In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).
I heard The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله say: Indeed, Allāh, Most High, said to me: ‘Oh Moḥammed, Indeed we have given you the seven repeated verses and the Glorious Quran.1 So I was singled out with this gift of the Opening of the Book, and He made it comparable – side by side – with the Glorious Quran.’
Indeed the Opening of the Book is the most honourable treasure from amongst the treasures of the Throne. Indeed Allāh made this specific with Moḥammed and honoured him with it and no Prophet ever shared this honour with him except Prophet Sulaymān عليه السلام, for indeed he given a part from it – In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – [when] speaking about Balqīs, when she said ‘Indeed there has come to me a glorious book. Indeed, it is from Solomon, and indeed, it reads: ‘In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).2
Therefore, one who reads it – with the belief of the authority of Moḥammed and his purified household, following its affairs believing in its apparent and it’s hidden – with each letter, Allāh will give that person what is better than the world and what is in it, from the different types of wealth and resources and goodness. And [furthermore], one who listens to one who is reciting it, he has gained [in reward] the same as reciter. Therefore, anyone of you should increase in reciting from this blessed gift that’s presented to you all – for indeed it’s a valuable item. Do not allow a moment for it to leave, for anguish will remain in your hearts.

1. al-Ḥijr (15:87)
2. al-Naml (27:29-30)

محمد بن علي بن بابويه ، قال : حدثنا محمد بن القاسم المفسر المعروف : بأبي الحسن الجرجاني ( رضي الله عنه ) ، قال : حدثني يوسف بن محمد بن زياد ، وعلي بن محمد بن سيار ، عن أبويهما ، عن الحسن ابن علي ، عن أبيه علي بن محمد ، عن أبيه محمد بن علي ، عن أبيه الرضا علي بن موسى ، عن أبيه ، عن آبائه ، عن أمير المؤمنين ( عليهم السلام ) أنه قال :  بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ آية من فاتحة الكتاب ، وهي سبع آيات ، تمامها : ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) سمعت رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) يقول : إن الله تعالى قال لي : يا محمد : ولَقَدْ آتَيْناكَ سَبْعاً مِنَ الْمَثانِي والْقُرْآنَ الْعَظِيمَ  فأفرد الامتنان علي بفاتحة الكتاب ، وجعلها بإزاء القرآن العظيم . وإن فاتحة الكتاب أشرف ما في كنوز العرش ، وإن الله عز وجل خص محمدا ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وشرفه بها ، ولم يشرك معه فيها أحدا من أنبيائه ، ما خلا سليمان ( عليه السلام ) فإنه أعطاه منها :  بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ حكى عن بلقيس حين قالت : إِنِّي أُلْقِيَ إِلَيَّ كِتابٌ كَرِيمٌ إِنَّه مِنْ سُلَيْمانَ وإِنَّه بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ألا فمن قرأها معتقدا لموالاة محمد ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) وآله الطيبين ، منقادا لأمرها ، مؤمنا بظاهرها وباطنها ، أعطاه الله بكل حرف منها أفضل من الدنيا وما فيها ، من أصناف أموالها وخيراتها . ومن استمع إلى قارئ يقرأها كان له قدر ما للقارىء ، فليستكثر أحدكم من هذا الخير المعرض لكم فإنه غنيمة ، لا يذهبن أوانه فتبقى في قلوبكم الحسرة

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #04

ʿUyūn Akhbār al-Ridha & al-‘Āmāli: ibn Bābawayh again, in a mursal fashion, who said:

It was said to ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn عليه السلام: Oh ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn, inform us about ‘In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm)’, is it from the Opening of the Book (i.e. al-Fātiḥa)?
He replied: Yes, The Messenger of Allāh used to recite it and consider it a part of al-Fātiḥa, and he would say: “The Opening of the Book1 is the seven repeated verses.”

1. The Opening of the Book (Fātiḥat al-Kitāb) is named as such – according to some scholars – because it was the first complete Chapter (Ṣurah) revealed to The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله. Another reasons the scholars posit, is that it is due to it being the first Chapter (Ṣurah) of the Qur’ān.

ابن بابويه أيضا مرسلا ، قال : قيل لأمير المؤمنين ( عليه السلام ) : يا أمير المؤمنين ، أخبرنا عن * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * أهي من فاتحة الكتاب ؟ فقال : نعم ، كان رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) يقرأها ويعدها منها ، ويقول : فاتحة الكتاب هي السبع المثاني

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #05

al-Kāfi: Moḥammed bin Yaʿqūb, from ʿAlī bin Ibrāhīm, from his father, from ibn Abī ʿUmayr, from Muʿāwiya bin ʿAmār:1

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام, who said: If al-Fātiḥa was recited upon a dead body seventy times, then as a result the soul returns to it – it would not be something strange.

1. The chain of this ḥadīth is Good (Ḥassan) or Authentic (Ṣaḥiḥ).

محمد بن يعقوب : عن علي بن إبراهيم ، عن أبيه ، عن ابن أبي عمير ، عن معاوية بن عمار ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) قال : لو قرئت الحمد على ميت سبعين مرة ، ثم ردت فيه الروح ، ما كان عجبا

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #06

al-Kāfi: And from him, from Moḥammed bin Yaḥya, from Aḥmed bin Moḥammed bin ʿĪsa, from Moḥammed bin ‘Ismāʿīl bin Bazīʿ, from ʿAbd Allāh bin al-Fadhl, in a marfuʿ, manner, ascribed:

al-Ḥamd (i.e. al-Fātiḥa) is not read upon a place of pain, except that it is reposed.

وعنه : عن محمد بن يحيى ، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى ، عن محمد بن إسماعيل بن بزيع ، عن عبدالله بن الفضل ، رفعه ، قال : ما قرأت الحمد على وجع سبعين مرة إلا سكن

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #07

al-Kāfi: And from him, from Moḥammed bin Yaḥya, from Aḥmed bin Moḥammed, from Moḥammed bin Sinān, from Salamah bin Muḥriz, who said:

I heard Abā Jaʿfar عليه السلام say: One who was not cured by al-Ḥamd1 (i.e. al-Fātiḥa), then there was nothing that could cure him.

1. The Praise (al-Ḥamd) is named as such due to the Chapter (Ṣurah) containing Praise (al-Ḥamd), Supplication (Duʿa’), and Remembrance (Dhikr).

وعنه : عن محمد بن يحيى ، عن أحمد بن محمد ، عن محمد بن سنان ، عن سلمة بن محرز ، قال : سمعت أبا جعفر ( عليه السلام ) يقول : من لم يبرئه الحمد لم يبرئه شيء

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #08

Thawāb al-Aʿmāl: Ibn Bābawayh, who said – it was narrated to me by my father رحمه الله, who said – it was narrated to me by Moḥammed bin Yaḥya al-ʿAṭṭār, from Moḥammed bin Aḥmed, from Moḥammed bin Ḥassān, from ‘Ismāʿīl bin Mahrān, who said – it was narrated to me by al-Ḥassan bin ʿAlī bin Abī Ḥamza al-Baṭā’ini, from his father, who said:

Abū ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام said: The greatest name of Allāh is a passage within Um ul-Kitāb.1

1. Um ul-Kitāb (i.e. al-Fātiḥa) is named such due to it containing the general contents of the whole Qur’ān such as Tawḥīd, Allāh’s Lordship and Authority, His Attributes, the Hereafter and the Day of Judgement, guidance and misguidance. Um (ام) is literally in the meaning of (الأساس) foundation or (الجذر) root. A tradition from The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله, where he said : (ان لكل شيء أساس أساس القران الفاتحة) Indeed with everything there’s a foundation, and the foundation of the Qur’ān is al-Fātiḥa.

ابن بابويه ، قال : حدثني أبي ( رحمه الله ) ، قال : حدثني محمد بن يحيى العطار ، عن محمد بن أحمد ، عن محمد بن حسان ، عن إسماعيل بن مهران ، قال : حدثني الحسن بن علي بن أبي حمزة البطائني ، عن أبيه ، قال : قال أبو عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) : اسم الله الأعظم مقطع في أم الكتاب

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #09

ʿUyūn Akhbār al-Ridha: And from him, who said – it was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin al-Ḥassan bin Aḥmed bin al-Walīd, who said – it was narrated to me by Moḥammed bin Yaḥya al-ʿAṭṭār, from Aḥmed bin Moḥammed bin ʿĪsa, from Moḥammed bin Sinān:

From al-Ridha, ʿAlī bin Mūsa عليهما السلام, who said: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) is closer to the Greatest Name of Allāh than the black of the eye is to the white.

وعنه ، قال : حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد ، قال : حدثني محمد بن يحيى العطار ، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى ، عن محمد بن سنان ، عن الرضا علي بن موسى ( عليهما السلام ) أنه قال : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * أقرب إلى اسم الله الأعظم من سواد العين إلى بياضها

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #10

Tafsīr al-Qummi: ʿAlī bin Ibrāhīm in his Tafsīr, from ibn ‘Udhayna, who said:

Abū ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام said: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) is most deserving to be that which is recited out loud, and it is the verse in which Allāh said: “And when you mention your Lord alone in the Qur’an, they turn back in aversion.

علي بن إبراهيم في ( تفسيره ) : عن ابن أذينة ، قال : قال أبو عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * أحق ما جهر به ، وهي الآية التي قال الله عز وجل : وإِذا ذَكَرْتَ رَبَّكَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ وَحْدَه وَلَّوْا عَلى أَدْبارِهِمْ نُفُوراً

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #11

Tafsīr al-Qummi: From ʿAlī bin Ibrāhīm, who said – it was narrated to me by my father, from al-Ḥassan bin ʿAlī bin Fadhāl, from ʿAlī bin ʿUqba:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام who said: Indeed, Iblīs let out an two cries of lamentation. [The first was] when Allāh sent His Prophet after a period had passed from the time of the messengers; and [the second was] when Um ul-Kitāb (al-Fātiḥa) descended.

عنه ، قال : حدثني أبي ، عن الحسن بن علي بن فضال ، عن علي بن عقبة ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : إن إبليس رن رنينا ، لما بعث الله نبيه على حين فترة من الرسل ، وحين نزلت أم الكتاب

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #12

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: With his chain, from al-Ḥassan bin ʿAlī bin Abī Ḥamza al-Baṭā’ani, from his father, who said:

Abū ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام said:  The greatest name of Allāh is a passage within Um ul-Kitāb.1

1. See footnote from ḥadīth #8.

العياشي ، بأسانيده عن الحسن بن علي بن أبي حمزة البطائني ، عن أبيه ، قال : قال أبو عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) : اسم الله الأعظم مقطع في أم الكتاب

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #13

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From Moḥammed bin Sinān, from Abī al-Ḥassan, Mūsa bin Jaʿfar:

From his father [al-Ṣādiq] عليهما السلام, who said: He said to Abū Ḥanīfa: Which sūrah (chapter) is it that it’s beginning is praise, its middle is sincerity, and it’s ending is supplication?
Abu Hanifa remained perplexed, and then said: I don’t know.
Then Abū ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام said: The sūrah in which it’s beginning is praise, it’s middle is sincerity, and it’s ending is supplication – is sūrah al-Ḥamd (i.e. al-Fātiḥa).1

1. The Imām عليه السلام is highlighting the chapter’s (sūrah) has special significance, with stated that it’s beginning is praise – because of the verse “All Praise is due to Allāh.” According to the Arabic linguists, the alif and lām (ال) prefix on the word الحمد (al-Ḥamd, all Praise) signifies الاستغراق  – meaning it is inclusive of all praise, because everything that is a blessing is from Allāh.
There’s a narration that says Allāh revealed it this way because mankind would not be able to praise Him with the praise which is due to Him, so by saying “al-Ḥamdulillah”, one is saying all praise – in absolute – is for Allāh alone.
Then the Imām said that it’s middle is sincerity, due to the verse “You alone do we worship and you alone do we seek help and aid.” This means we show our sincerity and faith by relying upon Allāh and devoting ourselves to Him whole heartily. Due to the structure of words in this sentence, the language demands that we worship only Allāh, and only from Allāh do we help and aid.
Then the Imām continues and says that it’s ending is supplication – “Guide us to the straight path – The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray.
For a visual representation, click here.

عن محمد بن سنان ، عن أبي الحسن موسى بن جعفر ، عن أبيه ( عليهما السلام ) ، قال : قال لأبي حنيفة : ما سورة أولها تحميد ، وأوسطها إخلاص ، وآخرها دعاء ؟ فبقي متحيرا ، ثم قال : لا أدري . فقال أبو عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) : السورة التي أولها تحميد ، وأوسطها إخلاص ، وآخرها دعاء ، سورة الحمد

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #14

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From Yūnis bin ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, from the one who narrated in a marfūʿ fashion, who said:

I asked Abā ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام [about the āya]: Indeed we have given you the seven often repeated verses and the Glorious Qur’ān.1
He said: It is the chapter of al-Ḥamd (i.e. al-Fātiḥa), and it’s seven verses, from it is: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm). It is only named al-Mathāni because it’s recited paired (i.e. recited twice) in the two cycles (rakʿa) of prayer.2

1. al-Ḥijr (15:87)
2. al-Fātiḥa is recited in the first cycle, and second cycle, of all the daily obligatory prayers.

عن يونس بن عبدالرحمن ، عمن رفعه ، قال : سألت أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) : ولَقَدْ آتَيْناكَ سَبْعاً مِنَ الْمَثانِي والْقُرْآنَ الْعَظِيمَ ؟ فقال : هي سورة الحمد ، وهي سبع آيات منها * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * وإنما سميت المثاني لأنها تثنى في الركعتين

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #15

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From Abi Ḥamza:

From Abī Jaʿfar عليه السلام, who said: The most honourable āya (verse) in the Book of Allāh was stolen – [and that is] In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).1

1. This was due to the fact that some scholars from among the Mukhālifīn (non-Shiʿa) rejected this āya, saying it isn’t a āya, nor part of al-Fātiḥa. The Imām عليه السلام shows dissatisfaction towards those who have done so – stating that this āya which has been neglected and not giving its rightful due, is the greatest āya; and furthermore, how much of a shame and loss is it for those who’ve rejected and undermined it.

 عن أبي حمزة ، عن أبي جعفر ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : سرقوا أكرم آية في كتاب الله : بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #16

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From Ṣafwān al-Jamāl, who said:

Abū ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام who said: Allāh did not send down a book from the heavens except that it’s opening was In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm). The cessation of one chapter is only known by the descension of In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) as the beginning of another.

عن صفوان الجمال ، قال : قال أبو عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) : ما أنزل الله من السماء كتابا إلا وفاتحته * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * وإنما كان يعرف انقضاء السورة بنزول * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * ابتداء للأخرى

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #17

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From Abī Ḥamza:

From Abī Jaʿfar عليه السلام, who said: The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله would recite In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) out loud, and raise his voice with it.1 Therefore, when the polytheists would hear this they turned their backs, so Allāh sent down [the āya]: “And when you mention your Lord alone in the Qur’ān, they turn back in aversion.2

1. According to our scholars, this ḥadīth, and others like it, prove that it’s recommended to recite the basmala out loud in prayers which are read quietly such as the two midday prayers (dhuhr and ʿaṣr).
2. al-‘Isrā’ (17:46)

عن أبي حمزة ، عن أبي جعفر ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : كان رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) يجهر ب * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * ويرفع صوته بها ، فإذا سمع المشركون ولوا مدبرين ، فأنزل الله : وإِذا ذَكَرْتَ رَبَّكَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ وَحْدَه وَلَّوْا عَلى أَدْبارِهِمْ نُفُوراً

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #18

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: al-Ḥassan bin Kharzād said:

Narrating from Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام, who said: When a man leads the people in prayers, a satan approaches the satan who is close to the leader of prayers, and says : Has he remembered Allāh? – meaning did he recite ‘In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).’ So if he says yes, the satan flees from him; but if he says no, then the satan mounts the neck of the leader of prayers, and and lowers his legs upon his chest (i.e. he straddles the man leading there prayer). The satan continues this with the leader of prayers, until they finish their prayer.

قال الحسن بن خرزاد ، وروي عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : إذا أم الرجل القوم ، جاء شيطان إلى الشيطان الذي هو قريب إلى الإمام ، فيقول : هل ذكر الله ؟ يعني هل قرأ * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * فإن قال : نعم ، هرب منه ، وإن قال : لا ، ركب عنق الإمام ، ودلى رجليه في صدره ، فلم يزل الشيطان إمام القوم حتى يفرغوا من صلاتهم

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #19

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From ʿAbd al-Malik bin ʿUmar:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام, who said: Indeed, Iblīs cried out four cries of lamentation; the first was the day he was cursed, and [the second] when he was cast down to the earth, and [the third] when Moḥammed صلى الله عليه وآله was sent [by Allāh] after a period had passed from the time of the messengers, and [the fourth] when Um ul-Kitāb (al-Fātiḥa) descended – All praise is due to Allāh, Lord of the Worlds.
Iblīs also snorted two snorts [of pleasure]; [the first] when Ādam عليه السلام ate from the tree, and [the second] when Ādam was sent down to the earth.
He (the Imām) said: And cursed is the one who does that.

عن عبد الملك بن عمر ، عن أبي عبد الله ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : إن إبليس رن أربع رنات : أولهن يوم لعن ، وحين هبط إلى الأرض ، وحين بعث محمد ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) على فترة من الرسل ، وحين أنزلت أم الكتاب * ( الْحَمْدُ لِلَّه رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ ) * ونخر نخرتين : حين أكل آدم ( عليه السلام ) من الشجرة ، وحين أهبط آدم إلى الأرض – قال – : ولعن من فعل ذلك

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #20

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From ‘Ismāʿīl bin Abān who narrated in a marfūʿ fashion that:

The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله said to Jābir bin ʿAbd Allāh: Oh Jābir, shall I teach you the best and greatest chapter that Allāh has revealed in His Book?
Jābir replied: Yes, May my father and mother be your ransom, Oh Messenger of Allāh, teach me.
He said: He said: So The Messenger of Allāh taught him al-Ḥamdulillah – Um’ al-kitāb (i.e. al-Fātiḥa).
He said: Then he said to him: Oh Jābir, do you you not want me to inform you about it?
Jābir replied: Yes, May my father and mother be your ransom, Oh Messenger of Allāh, teach me.
He said: “Its a cure for every ailment, except for al-Sām” – meaning death.

عن إسماعيل بن أبان ، يرفعه إلى النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) قال : قال رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) لجابر بن عبدالله : يا جابر ، ألا أعلمك أفضل سورة أنزلها الله في كتابه ؟  قال : فقال جابر : بلى – بأبي أنت وأمي ، يا رسول الله – علمنيها . قال : قال : فعلمه * ( الْحَمْدُ لِلَّه ) * أم الكتاب . قال : ثم قال له : يا جابر ، ألا أخبرك عنها ؟ قال : بلى – بأبي أنت وأمي – فأخبرني . قال : هي شفاء من كل داء ، إلا السام – يعني الموت

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #21

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From Salamah bin Moḥammed, who said:

I heard Abā ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام say: One who was not cured by al-Ḥamd (i.e. al-Fātiḥa), then there was nothing that could cure him.1

1. Sheikh Jawādi Āmuli has stated in his tafsīr that there’s no doubt that sūrah al-Ḥamd is a means of healing for the physical body, however, it also includes the self and its purification and healing. When it’s understood that al-Ḥamd is the summary of the whole Qur’ān – by understanding its contents and applying it in ones life – he’s curing himself from spiritual diseases such as ignorance, vile, lowly qualities and bad conduct. So, if he’s not curing himself from this sūrah then there’s no other sūrah that will be any benefit to him, since al-Fātiḥa encompasses the whole Qur’ān and it’s basic contents in essence.

عن سلمة بن محمد ، قال : سمعت أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) يقول : من لم تبرئه الحمد لم يبرئه شيء

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #22

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From Abī Bakr al-Ḥadhrami, who said:

Abū ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام said: When you have a need, then read al-Mathāni, and another chapter, and pray two cycles (rakʿah) of prayers, and then make supplication to Allāh.
I said: May Allāh compensate you, what’s al-Mathāni?
He replied: It is the Opening of the Book1 – In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).

1. al-Fātiḥa.

عن أبي بكر الحضرمي ، قال : قال أبو عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) : إذا كانت لك حاجة ، فاقرأ المثاني وسورة أخرى ، وصل ركعتين ، وادع الله . قلت : أصلحك الله ، وما المثاني ؟ قال : فاتحة الكتاب ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّه رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ )

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #23

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From ʿĪsa bin ʿAbd Allāh, from his father, from his grandfather, from ʿAlī عليه السلام who said:

It reached him that the people abstain from [saying] In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).
He (ʿAlī) said: It is a verse from the Book of Allāh. Satan that has made them forget it.

عن عيسى بن عبدالله ، عن أبيه ، عن جده ، عن علي ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : بلغه أن أناسا ينزعون * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * ، فقال : هي آية من كتاب الله ، أنساهم إياها الشيطان

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #24

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From ‘Ismāʿīl bin Mahrān, who said:

Abū Ḥassan al-Ridha عليه السلام said: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) is closer to the Greatest Name of Allāh than the black of the eye is to the white.1

1. It is said that the al-‘Ism al-Aʿdham (The Greatest name of Allāh) is الله (Allāh) itself, due to the fact that it is the one name which combines all names; and that the other names of Allāh fall under the shade of the name ‘Allāh’, directly or indirectly. For example al-Shāfi – The all-Healing – which falls under the name al-Rāziq – The provider of wealth and sustenance – and al-Rāziq falls under al-Khāliq – The Creator – which it falls under al-Qādir – The all-Powerful and Capable – which ultimately falls under the name Allāh. Thus, the name ‘Allāh’ encompasses all names.

عن إسماعيل بن مهران ، قال : قال أبو الحسن الرضا ( عليه السلام ) : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * أقرب إلى اسم الله الأعظم من سواد العين إلى بياضها

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #25

عن سليمان الجعفري ، قال : سمعت أبا الحسن ( عليه السلام ) يقول : « إذا أتى أحدكم أهله ، فليكن قبل ذلك ملاطفة ، فإنه ألين لقلبها ، وأسل لسخيمتها ، فإذا أفضى إلى حاجته ، قال : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه ) * ثلاثا ، فإن قدر أن يقرأ أي آية حضرته من القرآن فعل ، وإلا قد كفته التسمية » الحديث .

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From Sulaymān al-Jaʿfari who said:

I heard Abā al-Ḥassan عليه السلام say: When any of you come to your wife (lit. household), be gentle towards them; for indeed it it softens her heart, and removes any bitter feelings inside her. When he reaches for his desire (i.e. intends to go and sleep with his wife), he should say In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) three times. If he’s able, he should recite any verse from the Qur’ān that comes to his mind – but if not al-Tasmiyya (saying Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) will suffice for him.1 The ḥadīth continues.

1. There are other narrations that say that before one goes unto their wife, it is recommended to say In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).

عن سليمان الجعفري ، قال : سمعت أبا الحسن ( عليه السلام ) يقول : إذا أتى أحدكم أهله ، فليكن قبل ذلك ملاطفة ، فإنه ألين لقلبها ، وأسل لسخيمتها ، فإذا أفضى إلى حاجته ، قال : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه ) * ثلاثا ، فإن قدر أن يقرأ أي آية حضرته من القرآن فعل ، وإلا قد كفته التسمية – الحديث

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #26

Tafsīr al-ʿAyyāshi: From Khālid bin al-Mukhtār who said:

I heard Jaʿfar bin Moḥammed عليه السلام say: What have they done? May Allāh destroy them! They proceeded to the greatest verse of the Book of Allāh, and thought that it would be an innovation (bidʿah) if they made it apparent (i.e. recited it loudly) – and it is In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).

عن خالد بن المختار ، قال : سمعت جعفر بن محمد ( عليه السلام ) يقول : ما لهم – قاتلهم الله – عمدوا إلى أعظم آية في كتاب الله ، فزعموا أنها بدعة إذا أظهروها ، وهي ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ )

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #27

Amāli of al-Shaykh al-Ṭūsi: With his chain, he said:

al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام said: One who is afflicted with an ailment, let him recite al-Ḥamd (i.e. al-Fātiḥa) in his heart seven times, for indeed it will depart. However, if it does not – then one should recite it seventy times; and I am the guarantor of good health for him.

أمالي الشيخ  بإسناده ، قال : قال الصادق ( عليه السلام ) : من نالته علة ، فليقرأ الحمد في جيبه سبع مرات ، فإن ذهبت ، وإلا فليقرأها سبعين مرة ، وأنا الضامن له العافية

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #28

Jāmiʿal-Akhbār: From ibn Masʿūd:

From the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله who said: One who desires for Allāh to save him from the nineteen guardians of Hell1, should recite In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), for it consists of nineteen letters, and Allāh will make each letter from it [a means of protection] from each of them.

1. As mentioned in the Qur’ān, there are nineteen angels guarding the hell-fire, or more specifically, Saqar. “Over it (Saqar) are nineteen [angels]. And We have not made the keepers of the Fire except angels. And We have not made their number except as a trial for those who disbelieve – that those who were given the Scripture will be convinced and those who have believed will increase in faith and those who were given the Scripture and the believers will not doubt and that those in whose hearts is hypocrisy and the disbelievers will say, “What does Allah intend by this as an example?” Thus does Allah leave astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And none knows the soldiers of your Lord except Him. And mention of the Fire is not but a reminder to humanity.” (al-Muddaththir 74:30-31)

 جامع الأخبار  : عن ابن مسعود ، عن النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) : من أراد أن ينجيه الله من الزبانية التسعة عشر ، فليقرأ * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * فإنها تسعة عشر حرفا ، ليجعل الله كل حرف منها عن واحد منهم

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #29

Jāmiʿal-Akhbār: From ibn Masʿūd:

From the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله who said: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), Allāh will write for him – for every letter – four thousand good deeds, and wipe out four thousand bad deeds, and raise him [in rank] of four thousand levels.

وعن ابن مسعود ، عن النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) ، قال : من قرأ * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * كتب الله له بكل حرف أربعة آلاف حسنة ، ومحا عنه أربعة آلاف سيئة ، ورفع له أربعة آلاف درجة

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #30

Jāmiʿal-Akhbār:

It was narrated from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله that he said: Whoever reads In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), Allāh builds for him seventy thousand palaces  in paradise, made out of red ruby; in in each palace are seventy thousand houses made from white pearl; and in each house there’s seventy thousand beds made from green jewels; on top of every bed are blankets and sheets made out of sandas1 and brocade; and upon it is a wife from the heavenly maids2, each one having seventy thousand hair locks which are crowned with pearl and ruby. Written upon her right cheek: ‘Moḥammed is The Messenger of Allāh’; and on her left cheek: ‘ʿAlī is the vicegerent of Allāh ‘; and on her forehead: ‘al-Ḥassan’; and on her chin: ‘al-Ḥussain’ and on her lips: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).
I said: Oh Messenger of Allāh, for who is this honour?
He said: For the one who recites – with respect and honour – In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).

 

1. Sandas: Rich fabric with a silky finish woven with a raised pattern and often with gold or silver thread

2. Heavenly maids are mentioned in the Qur’ān and narrations, in Arabic it’s حور العين (Ḥūr al-ʿAyn) which it’s said to literally mean big brown eyes, signifying beauty and attraction.

وروي عن النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) قال : من قرأ * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * بنى الله له في الجنة سبعين ألف قصر من ياقوتة حمراء ، في كل قصر سبعون ألف بيت من لؤلؤة بيضاء ، في كل بيت سبعون ألف سرير من زبرجدة خضراء ، فوق كل سرير سبعون ألف فراش من سندس وإستبرق ، وعليه زوجة من حور العين ، ولها سبعون ألف ذؤابة ، مكللة بالدر والياقوت ، مكتوب على خدها الأيمن : محمد رسول الله ، وعلى خدها الأيسر : علي ولي الله ، وعلى جبينها الحسن ، وعلى ذقنها : الحسين ، وعلى شفتيها : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * » . قلت : يا رسول الله ، لمن هذه الكرامة ؟ قال : لمن يقول بالحرمة والتعظيم : ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ )

 

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #31

Jāmiʿal-Akhbār:

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله said: When a believer passes upon the Ṣirāt1, he will say: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), whereupon the blaze of the fire is extinguished, and it says: Pass through, oh believer, for indeed your light (nūr) has put out my blaze.

1. al-Ṣirāt (الصراط) is the bridge, hair-line in width, which everyone will have to pass through it on the Day of Judgement.
Some traditions say some people will pass like lighting, some will pass quickly, some will pass walking, some will pass slowly while crawling, being burned by its flames in the process.
There’s a tradition in al-Kāfi, that describes the supplication that Imām ʿAlī عليه السلام would recite while making ablution – where he would wipe his feet and say: Oh Allāh, make my feet firm on the Ṣirāt on the day which many will slip and fall.

وقال النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) : إذا مر المؤمن على الصراط ، فيقول : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * أطفئ لهب النار ، وتقول : جز – يا مؤمن – فإن نورك قد أطفأ لهبة

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #32

Jāmiʿal-Akhbār:

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله said: When a teacher says to a young child – “Say In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm)”, whereupon the young child says In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), Allāh will prescribe for the young child, his parents, and the teacher, a clearance (barā’ah) from the Fire.

وقال النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) : إذا قال المعلم للصبي : [ قل : ] * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * [ فقال الصبي : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * ] كتب الله براءة للصبي ، وبراءة لأبويه ، وبراءة للمعلم [ من النار ]

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #33

Munāqib ibn Shahr Āshūb:

It is narrated from a man by the name of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, who was a teacher for children in Medina. He taught one of the sons of al-Ḥussain عليه السلام, who was named ‘Jaʿfar’. He taught him All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. (al-Ḥamdulillahi Rabb al-ʿĀlamīn) (i.e. al-Fātiḥa).
When his son read it to his father al-Ḥussain عليه السلام, he called for the teacher and gave him one thousand dinars, and one thousand garments, and gave him a plentiful reward (lit. filled his mouth with pearls).
It was said to him: “This [as a compensation] for that?”
He replied: How can what I gave him compare with what he taught my son: ‘All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.’ (al-Ḥamdulillahi Rabb al-ʿĀlamīn) (i.e. al-Fātiḥa). ?

وروي أن رجلا يسمى عبد الرحمن ، كان معلما للأولاد في المدينة ، فعلم ولدا للحسين ( عليه السلام ) يقال له جعفر ، فعلمه * ( الْحَمْدُ لِلَّه رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ ) * فلما قرأها على أبيه الحسين ( عليه السلام ) استدعى المعلم ، وأعطاه ألف دينار وألف حلة ، وحشا فاه درا ، فقيل له في ذلك ؟ فقال ( عليه السلام ) : وأنى تساوي عطيتي هذه بتعليمه ولدي * ( الْحَمْدُ لِلَّه رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ ) * ؟

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, The Reward of al-Fātiḥa and its Merit; and that the Basmala is an Āya (verse) from it, and its Merit – Ḥadīth #34

Rabīʿ al-Abrār: al-Zamakhshari in ‘Rabīʿ al-Abrār’ said:

From The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله: No supplication is rejected if it is preceded with In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm). Indeed my nation (ummah) will come on the Day of Judgement saying In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), whereupon their good deeds will increase in weight upon the scales.
The other nations will say: How heavy [in favour of good] is the scales of the nation of Moḥammed صلى الله عليه وآله !
Then the Prophets will say: Indeed, the beginning of their speech is inclusive of three Names from the Names of Allāh, the Most High. If it was placed in one scale, and the evil deeds of all creation placed in the other – indeed, [the scale] would tilt towards their good.

الزمخشري في ( ربيع الأبرار ) : عن النبي ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) : لا يرد دعاء أوله * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * فإن أمتي يأتون يوم القيامة ، وهم يقولون : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * فتثقل حسناتهم في الميزان ، فتقول الأمم : ما أرجح موازين أمة محمد ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) ! فيقول الأنبياء : إن ابتداء كلامهم ثلاثة أسماء من أسماء الله تعالى ، لو وضعت في كفة الميزان ، ووضعت سيئات الخلق في كفة أخرى ، لرجحت حسناتهم

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful
Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm
(1:1)

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #01

Tafsīr al-Qummi: ʿAlī bin Ibrāhīm – via several chains1 leading up to the infallibles – one of them being: It was narrated to me by my father, from ʿAmru bin Ibrāhīm al-Rāshidi, and Ṣāliḥ bin Saʿīd, and Yaḥya bin Abī ʿImrān al-Ḥalabi, and ‘Ismāʿīl bin Marār, and Abī Ṭālib ʿAbd Allāh bin al-Ṣalṭ, from ʿAlī bin Yaḥya, from Abī Baṣīr:

I asked Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام about the exegesis of In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), where he replied: The [letter] bā’ (الباء) [in bism (بسم), stands for the] Bahā’2 of Allāh.
The sīn (السين) [stands for] Sanā’3 of Allāh.
The mīm (الميم) [stands for] Mulk4 of Allāh.
The meaning of The Entirely Merciful (al-Raḥmān), [is that] His Mercy embraces all creation.5
The meaning of The Especially Merciful (al-Raḥīm), [is that] His Mercy is exclusively for the Believers.6

1. The chains are in the Arabic narration. For the sake of brevity, we have only translated one (the last).
2. Beauty and Magnificence.
3. Splendour and Radiance of Beauty.
4. Sovereignty and Authority over all creation.
5. The Entirely Merciful (al-Raḥmān) is on the pattern of Ism ul-Mubāligha (الاسم المبالغة), meaning abundance – and that His Mercy embraces all things – as He states in the Qu’rān in 7:156: My mercy encompasses all things. (و رحمتي وسعت كل شيء) – meaning Believer and Disbeliever. According to the commentators, this Mercy is specific to this world.
6. The Especially Merciful (al-Raḥīm) is on the pattern of Ṣifat ul-Mushabbiha (صفة المشبّهة) which means that it remains and it is established. This is a special type of Mercy that is reserved, particularly and exclusively, for the Believers.

علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم ، قال : حدثنا أبو الفضل العباس بن محمد بن القاسم بن حمزة بن موسى ابن جعفر ( عليه السلام ) . قال : حدثني أبي ، عن محمد بن أبي عمير ، عن حماد بن عيسى ، عن حريز ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) . قال : وحدثني أبي ، عن النضر بن سويد ، عن حماد ، وعبد الرحمن بن أبي نجران ، وابن فضال ، عن علي بن عقبة .  قال : وحدثني أبي ، عن النضر بن سويد ، وأحمد بن محمد بن أبي نصر ، عن عمرو بن شمر ، عن جابر ، عن أبي جعفر ( عليه السلام ) . قال : وحدثني أبي ، عن ابن أبي عمير ، عن حماد ، عن الحلبي ، وهشام بن سالم ، وعن كلثوم بن الهرم ، عن عبدالله بن سنان ، وعبدالله بن مسكان ، وعن صفوان ، وسيف بن عميرة ، وأبي حمزة الثمالي ، وعن عبدالله بن جندب ، والحسين بن خالد ، عن أبي الحسن الرضا ( عليه السلام ) . قال : وحدثني أبي ، عن حنان ، وعبدالله بن ميمون القداح ، وأبان بن عثمان ، عن عبدالله بن شريك العامري ، عن المفضل بن عمر ، وأبي بصير ، عن أبي جعفر وأبي عبدالله ( عليهما السلام ) ، قالا في تفسير * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * . قال : وحدثني أبي ، عن عمرو بن إبراهيم الراشدي ، وصالح بن سعيد ، ويحيى بن أبي عمران الحلبي ، وإسماعيل بن مرار ، وأبي طالب عبدالله بن الصلت ، عن علي بن يحيى ، عن أبي بصير ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : سألته عن تفسير * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * قال : الباء بهاء الله ، والسين سناء الله ، والميم ملك الله ، والله إله كل شيء ، والرحمن بجميع خلقه ، والرحيم بالمؤمنين خاصة

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #02

al-Kāfi: Moḥammed bin Yaʿqūb, from a number of our companions, from Aḥmed bin Moḥammed bin Khālid, from al-Qāsim bin Yaḥya, from his grandfather al-Ḥassan bin Rāshid, from ʿAbd Allāh bin Sinān, who said:

I asked Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام about the exegesis of In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), where he replied: The letter bā’ (الباء) [in bism (بسم), stands for the] Bahā’1 of Allāh.
The sīn (السين) [stands for] Sanā’2 of Allāh.
The mīm (الميم) [stands for] Majd3 of Allāh.
Some have narrated that the mīm (الميم) [stands for] Mulk4 of Allāh.
Allāh [means that he] is The God of all things.
The meaning of The Entirely Merciful (al-Raḥmān), [is that] His Mercy embraces all creation.
The meaning of The Especially Merciful (al-Raḥīm), [is that] His Mercy is exclusively for the Believers.5

1. Beauty and Magnificence.
2. Splendour and Radiance of Beauty.
3. Glory and Honour.
4. Sovereignty and Authority over all creation.
5. Sayyid ʿAbd Allāh al-Sabzawāri رحمه الله has stated in his tafsīr Muwāhib ul-Raḥmān, Volume 1, pg. 27, that the knowledge of letters is an honourable science, whose knowledge rests only with those invested with authority from Allāh, the Exalted, and are aware of the inner realities of things – and they are the Purified Household عليه السلام.

محمد بن يعقوب : عن عدة من أصحابنا ، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد ، عن القاسم بن يحيى ، عن جده الحسن بن راشد ، عن عبدالله بن سنان ، قال : سألت أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) عن تفسير * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * ، قال : الباء بهاء الله ، والسين سناء الله ، والميم مجد الله – وروى بعضهم : الميم ملك الله – والله إله كل شيء ، الرحمن بجميع خلقه ، والرحيم بالمؤمنين خاصة

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #03

al-Kāfi: And from him, from ʿAlī bin Ibrāhīm, from al-Nadhr bin Suwīd, from Hishām bin al-Ḥakam:1

[Hishām bin al-Ḥakam] asked Abā ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام about the Names of Allāh, and their Derivatives, and from what has ‘Allāh’ been derived from?
He عليه السلام  said: Oh Hishām, ‘Allāh’ has been derived from ‘ilāh’ (god) and the ‘ilāh’ necessitates a ma’lūh2. The Name is not the same as the Named, so whoever who worships the Name without the Meaning has blasphemed, and has [in fact] not worshipped anything! And whoever worships the Name and the Meaning [together], has associated [partners with Allāh], and has [in fact] worshipped two. And whoever has worships the Meaning without the Name – so that is Tawḥīd (Divine Unity). Do you understand, Oh Hishām?
I said: Teach me more (lit. increase me).
He عليه السلام said: For Allāh is ninety nine Names. Had the Name been [the same as] the Named, then every one of them would be a god. On the contrary, ‘Allāh’ is the meanings in which is indicated by these names, and all of these [Names] are other than Him. Oh Hishām, the bread is the name of something that’s eaten, and the water is the name of something that you drink, and the dress is the name of something that is worn, and the fire is a name of something that burns. Do you understand, Oh Hishām? An understanding by which you can defend with, and compete with, against the enemies of Allāh – those that take alongside Allāh others?
I said: Yes
He said: May Allāh benefit you by it and keep you steadfast, Oh Hishām.
Hishām said: By Allāh, no one defeated me in the topic of Tawḥīd, since then until now.

1. al-Majlisi says the ḥadīth has a good (Ḥassan) chain. (Mir’āt al-ʿUqūl, Volume 2, Page 39, Ḥadīth #2)
2. Servant or worshipper.

وعنه : عن علي بن إبراهيم ، عن النضر بن سويد ، عن هشام بن الحكم أنه سأل أبا عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) عن أسماء الله واشتقاقها ، والله مم هو مشتق ؟ فقال : « يا هشام ، الله مشتق من إله ، والإله يقتضي مألوها ، والاسم غير المسمى ، فمن عبد الاسم دون المعنى فقد كفر ولم يعبد شيئا ، ومن عبد الاسم والمعنى فقد أشرك وعبد اثنين ، ومن عبد المعنى دون الاسم فذاك التوحيد ، أفهمت يا هشام ؟ » . قال : قلت زدني . قال : « لله تسعة وتسعون اسماء ، فلو كان الاسم هو المسمى لكان كل اسم منها إلها ، ولكن الله معنى يدل عليه بهذه الأسماء ، وكلها غيره . يا هشام ، الخبز اسم للمأكول ، والماء اسم للمشروب ، والثوب اسم للملبوس ، والنار اسم للمحرق ، أفهمت – يا هشام – فهما تدفع به وتناضل به أعداء الله ، المتخذين مع الله عز وجل غيره ؟ » . قلت : نعم ، فقال : « نفعك الله به وثبتك ، يا هشام » . قال هشام : فو الله ما قهرني أحد في التوحيد حتى قمت مقامي

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #04

al-Kāfi: And from him, from a number of our companions, from Aḥmed bin Moḥammed al-Barqi, from al-Qāasim bin Yaḥya, from his grandfather al-Ḥassan ibn Rāshid:

From Abī al-Ḥassan Mūsa bin Jaʿfar عليه السلام, who said: He [al-Kādhum] was asked about the meaning of Allāh.
He replied: He has authority over what is minute and what is grand.1

1. Here the Imām عليه السلام explains the meaning of Allāh by stating that His authority embraces everything, even:
a) that which is minute (i.e. small) – even that which cannot be seen by the naked eye, like atoms, which can only be seen by a microscope.
b) that which is grand (i.e. big) – such as the planets and galaxies.
In other words there’s nothing that is outside His authority and power as the Qur’ān states many times: ‘Indeed Allah is over all things powerful’.

وعنه : عن عدة من أصحابنا ، عن أحمد بن محمد البرقي ، عن القاسم بن يحيى ، عن جده الحسن ابن راشد ، عن أبي الحسن موسى بن جعفر ( عليه السلام ) قال : سئل عن معنى الله ، فقال : استولى على ما دق وجل

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #05

Maʿāni al-Akhbār: Ibn Bābawayh, from his father, who said – it was narrated to us by Aḥmed bin Idrīs, from al-Ḥussain bin ʿAbd Allāh, from Moḥammed bin ʿAbd Allāh, and Mūsa bin ʿUmar, and al-Ḥassan bin ʿAlī bin Abī ʿUthmān, from ibn Sinān, who said:

I asked Abā al-Ḥassan al-Ridha عليه السلام about the ‘Ism (Name), what is it?
He said: [It is] an attribute to the one who is attributed.

ابن بابويه : عن أبيه ، قال : حدثنا أحمد بن إدريس ، عن الحسين بن عبدالله ، عن محمد بن عبد الله ، وموسى بن عمر ، والحسن بن علي بن أبي عثمان ، عن ابن سنان ، قال : سألت أبا الحسن الرضا ( عليه السلام ) عن الاسم ، ما هو ؟ فقال : صفة لموصوف

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #06

Maʿāni al-Akhbār: And from him, he said – it was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin al-Ḥassan bin Aḥmed bin al-Walīd, who said – it was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin al-Ḥassan al-Ṣaffār, from al-ʿAbbās bin Maʿrūf, from Ṣafwān bin Yaḥya, from the one who narrated to him:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام, who was asked about In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), so he replied: The [letter] bā’ (الباء) [in bism (بسم), stands for the] Bahā’1 of Allāh.
The sīn (السين) [stands for] Sanā’2 of Allāh.
The mīm (الميم) [stands for] Mulk3 of Allāh.
He said: So I said: [And] Allāh?
He replied: The alif (الألف) [stands for] Ālā’ (blessings) of Allāh upon his creations through our authority (wilāyah).
The lām (اللام) [stands for] ilzām (obligating) His creatures to our authority.
I said: And the hā’ (الهاء)?
He said: It is abasement for those who oppose Moḥammed and the family of Moḥammed صلوات الله عليهم أجمعين.
I said: [And] al-Raḥmān?
He said: It is for all the world .
I said: [And] al-Raḥīm?
He said: It is exclusively for the Believers.

1. Beauty and Magnificence.
2. Splendour and Radiance of Beauty.
3. Sovereignty and Authority over all creation.

وعنه ، قال : حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد ، قال : حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار ، عن العباس بن معروف ، عن صفوان بن يحيى ، عمن حدثه ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) أنه سئل عن * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * ، فقال : الباء بهاء الله ، والسين سناء الله ، والميم ملك الله . قال : قلت : الله ؟ قال : الألف آلاء الله على خلقه من النعيم بولايتنا ، واللام إلزام الله خلقه ولايتنا . قلت : فالهاء ؟ قال : هوان لمن خالف محمدا وآل محمد ( صلوات الله عليهم أجمعين ) . قلت : الرحمن ؟ قال : بجميع العالم . قلت : الرحيم ؟ قال : بالمؤمنين خاصة

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #07

Maʿāni al-Akhbār: And from him, who said – it was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin Ibrāhīm bin ‘Isḥāq al-Ṭālqāni رضي الله عنه, who said – it was reported to us by Aḥmed bin Moḥammed ibn Saʿīd, the servent of Bani Hāshim, from ʿAlī bin al-Ḥassan bin Fadhāl, from his father:

I asked al-Ridha, ʿAlī bin Mūsa عليه السلام, about In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm)?
He replied: The meaning of the one saying ‘In the name of Allāh’ is ‘I brand myself with one of the brands of Allāh, Mighty and Majestic’, which is worship.1
He said: I said to him: What is the brand?
He replied: A mark.

1. That is, God’s brand with which a person brands himself in every affair is worship in reality and not merely in word and deed. This brand is a mark between him and his Lord by which he knows the truth from falsehood.

 وعنه ، قال : حدثنا محمد بن إبراهيم بن إسحاق الطالقاني ( رضي الله عنه ) ، قال : أخبرنا أحمد بن محمد ابن سعيد مولى بني هاشم ، عن علي بن الحسن بن فضال ، عن أبيه ، قال : سألت الرضا علي بن موسى ( عليه السلام ) عن * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * فقال : معنى قول القائل : بسم الله ، أي : أسمي على نفسي سمة من سمات الله عز وجل وهي العبادة  . قال : فقلت له : وما السمة ؟ قال : العلامة

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #08

Maʿāni al-Akhbār & Al-Tawḥīd: It was narrated to us by Moḥammed bin al-Qāsim al-Jurjāni the exegete (al-Mufassir) رحمه الله, who said – it was narrated to us by Abū Yaʿqūb Yūsif bin Moḥammed bin Ziyād, and Abū al-Ḥassan ʿAlī bin Moḥammed bin Sayyār – who were from the Imami Shiʿas via their parents:

From al-Ḥassan bin ʿAlī bin Moḥammed عليهم السلام, in regards to the words of Allāh, Mighty and Majestic: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), he said: He is Allāh, the One which every creation resorts to when in need and struggle; and when the hope in those other than Him is lost; and connection with all others is cut, except with him – you say: In the name of Allāh (Bismillah), meaning, I seek aid in all my affairs from Allāh, the One – who none other is deserving of worship except to Him; the One who gives succour to the one who asks for succour; and the One who answers if is called upon.
This is the like of what a man said to al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام: ‘Oh son of the Messenger of Allāh, guide me to Allāh – what is He? For there is an abundance of disputants and they have confused me.’
He replied to him: ‘Oh servant of Allāh, have you ever sailed in a ship?’
He said: ‘Yes.’
He [al-Ṣādiq] said: ‘Has it ever been damaged, where there was no ship to save you, nor swimming to avail you?’
He replied: ‘Yes.’
al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام said: ‘So did your heart cling on to something out there that [you felt] was capable of liberating you from your troubles?’
He replied: ‘Yes.’
al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام said: ‘That thing [your heart clung onto] is Allāh, the One capable to save you when there are no saviors, and capable to give succour when there are no others to give succour.’
Then al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام said: At times, some of our Shiʿa neglect saying In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), at the commencement of his affairs, so Allāh, Mighty and Majestic, tests him with difficulties, in order that He alerts him to be grateful to Allāh, Blessed and High, and praise him; and so that the stain of his shortcomings is erased, when he neglected saying In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).
He (the narrator) said: ‘A man approached ʿAlī bin al-Ḥussain عليه السلام, and said: Inform me of the meaning of In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm)?’
ʿAlī bin al-Ḥussain عليه السلام said: ‘It was narrated to me by my father, from his brother al-Ḥassan, from his father, ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn عليه السلام, that a man appraoched him, and said: Oh ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn, inform me about In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), what does it mean?’
He said: ‘Your saying: ‘Allāh’, is the greatest name from the names of Allāh, Mighty and Majestic, and it is the name that none should be names other than Allāh, and no creation is characterised by it.’
The man replied: ‘What is the interpretation of the saying ‘Allāh’?’
He said: ‘He the One which every creation resorts to when in need and struggle; and when the hope in those other than Him is lost; and connection with all others is cut, except with him; and because of this, every person who assumes a position of leadership, or greatness, within this worldly life – even if his his riches and authority is great, and the needs of those under him are plenty – they (those underneath him) will inevitably have need that this man who has assumed greatness cannot fulfil; and likewise this man who assumed greatness will require things that he cannot fulfil himself. So, at the times of difficulty and poverty, he will turn to Allāh, until his difficulty ends, where he will return to his shirk (i.e. denying Allāh’s ultimate supremacy).
Have you not heard the Allāh, Mighty and Majestic, say: Say, “Have you considered: if there came to you the punishment of Allah or there came to you the Hour – is it other than Allah you would invoke, if you should be truthful?” No, it is Him [alone] you would invoke, and He would remove that for which you invoked Him if He willed, and you would forget what you associate [with Him].
Allāh, Mighty and Majestic, said to his servants: ‘Oh you who are beggers of my Mercy, I have made it incumbent upon you that you are in need of me in every situation, and humility in servitude during all times; so resort to Me in every affair you undertake, and hope it eventuates in completion and reaches its conclusion; for if I desired to give to you, none other than me has the ability to deprive you; and if I desired to deprive you, none other than me can give to you. I have the most right in being asked, and the most deserving to be beseeched. Therefore, say at the commencement of every affair – be it small or large – In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), meaning, I seek aid in this affair, [from] the One who none is deserving of worship other than Him, except Him, the One who answers if you call, the One who succours if you seek succour; The Entirely Merciful, who gives mercy by bestowing sustenance upon him; The Especially Merciful to us, in our religion, our worldly life, and the life of our Hereafter. He has made easy upon us our religion, and made it simple and lightweight; and he is merciful to us by distinguishing us from our enemies.’
Then he said: The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله said: Whoever is saddened by an affair that has befallen him, and says: In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), and he is sincere to Allāh, and turns to Him with [all] his heart – one of two things shall not be separated from him; either attainment of his need in this worldly life, or it will be prepared and kept for him with his Lord. And that which is with Allāh is better and longer-lasting – for those who believe.

 وعنه ، قال : حدثنا محمد بن القاسم الجرجاني المفسر ( رحمه الله ) ، قال : حدثنا أبو يعقوب يوسف بن محمد بن زياد ، وأبو الحسن علي بن محمد بن سيار ، وكانا من الشيعة الإمامية ، عن أبويهما ، عن الحسن بن علي بن محمد ( عليهم السلام ) في قول الله عز وجل : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * ، فقال : « هو الله الذي يتأله إليه عند الحوائج والشدائد كل مخلوق ، عند انقطاع الرجاء عن كل من هو دونه ، وتقطع الأسباب من جميع من سواه ، تقول : بسم الله ، أي استعين على أموري كلها بالله ، الذي لا تحق العبادة إلا له ، والمغيث إذا استغيث ، والمجيب إذا دعي . وهو ما قال رجل للصادق ( عليه السلام ) : يا بن رسول الله ، دلني على الله ما هو ، فقد أكثر علي المجادلون وحيروني ؟ فقال له : يا عبدالله ، هل ركبت سفينة قط ؟ قال : نعم . فقال : هل كسرت بك ، حيث لا سفينة تنجيك ، ولا سباحة تغنيك ؟ قال : نعم . قال الصادق ( عليه السلام ) : فهل تعلق قلبك هنالك أن شيئا من الأشياء قادر على أن يخلصك من ورطتك ؟ قال : نعم . قال الصادق ( عليه السلام ) : فذلك الشيء هو الله ، القادر على الإنجاء حيث لا منجي ، وعلى الإغاثة حيث لا مغيث . ثم قال الصادق ( عليه السلام ) : ولربما ترك بعض شيعتنا في افتتاح أمره * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * فيمتحنه الله عز وجل بمكروه ، لينبهه على شكر الله تبارك وتعالى والثناء عليه ، ويمحق عنه وصمة تقصيره ، عند تركه قول : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * . قال : وقام رجل إلى علي بن الحسين ( عليه السلام ) فقال : أخبرني ما معنى * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * ؟ فقال علي بن الحسين ( عليه السلام ) : حدثني أبي ، عن أخيه الحسن ، عن أبيه أمير المؤمنين ( عليه السلام ) : أن رجلا قام إليه ، فقال : يا أمير المؤمنين ، أخبرني عن * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * ما معناه ؟ فقال : إن قولك : الله ، أعظم اسم من أسماء الله عز وجل ، وهو الاسم الذي لا ينبغي أن يسمى به غير الله ، ولم يتسم به مخلوق . فقال الرجل : فما تفسير قول الله ؟ قال : هو الذي يتأله إليه عند الحوائج والشدائد كل مخلوق ، عند انقطاع الرجاء من جميع من [ هو ] دونه ، وتقطع الأسباب من كل ما سواه ، وذلك [ أن ] كل مترئس في هذه الدنيا ، ومتعظم فيها ، وإن عظم غناه وطغيانه ، وكثرت حوائج من دونه إليه ، فإنهم سيحتاجون حوائج [ لا يقدر عليها هذا المتعاظم ، وكذلك هذا المتعاظم يحتاج حوائج ] لا يقدر عليها ، فينقطع إلى الله عند ضرورته وفاقته ، حتى إذا كفى همه ، عاد إلى شركه . أما تسمع الله عز وجل يقول : قُلْ أَرَأَيْتَكُمْ إِنْ أَتاكُمْ عَذابُ اللَّه أَوْ أَتَتْكُمُ السَّاعَةُ أَغَيْرَ اللَّه تَدْعُونَ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صادِقِينَ بَلْ إِيَّاه تَدْعُونَ فَيَكْشِفُ ما تَدْعُونَ إِلَيْه إِنْ شاءَ وتَنْسَوْنَ ما تُشْرِكُونَ ) * « 1 » فقال الله جل وعز لعباده : أيها الفقراء إلى رحمتي ، إني قد ألزمتكم الحاجة إلي في كل حال ، وذلة العبودية في كل وقت ، فإلي فافزعوا في كل أمر تأخذون وترجون تمامه وبلوغ غايته ، فإني إن أردت أن أعطيكم ، لم يقدر غيري على منعكم ، وإن أردت أن أمنعكم ، لم يقدر غيري على إعطائكم ، فأنا أحق من يسأل ، وأولى من تضرع إليه . فقولوا عند افتتاح كل أمر صغير أو عظيم * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * أي : استعين على هذا الأمر ، الذي لا تحق العبادة لغيره ، إلا له ، المجيب إذا دعي ، المغيث إذا استغيث ، الرحمن الذي يرحم يبسط الرزق علينا ، الرحيم بنا في أدياننا ، ودنيانا ، وآخرتنا ، خفف علينا الدين ، وجعله سهلا خفيفا ، وهو يرحمنا بتمييزنا من أعدائه » . ثم قال : « قال رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) : من حزنه أمر تعاطاه فقال : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * وهو مخلص لله ، ويقبل بقلبه إليه ، لم ينفك من إحدى اثنتين : إما بلوغ حاجته في الدنيا ، وإما يعد له عند ربه ويدخر له ، وما عند الله خير وأبقى للمؤمنين

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #09

al-ʿAyyāshi: From ʿAbd Allāh bin Sinān:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام on the interpretation of In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), he said:
The [letter] bā’ (الباء) [in bism (بسم), stands for the] Bahā’1 of Allāh.
The sīn (السين) [stands for] Sanā’2 of Allāh.
The mīm (الميم) [stands for] Majd3 of Allāh.
It was narrated in a different manner [in which mīm (الميم) means] Mulk4 of Allāh.
Allāh [means that he] is The God of all things.
The meaning of The Entirely Merciful (al-Raḥmān), [is that] His Mercy embraces all creation.
The meaning of The Especially Merciful (al-Raḥīm), [is that] His Mercy is exclusively for the Believers.
And it was narrated in a different manner that Allah is the god of all things.

 

1. Beauty and Magnificence.
2. Splendour and Radiance of Beauty.
3. Glory and Honour.
4. Sovereignty and Authority over all creation.

العياشي : عن عبدالله بن سنان ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ، في تفسير * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * فقال : الباء بهاء الله ، والسين سناء الله ، والميم مجد الله – ورواه غيره عنه : ملك الله – والله إله الخلق ، الرحمن بجميع العالم ، الرحيم بالمؤمنين خاصة » . ورواه غيره عنه : « والله إله كل شيء

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #10

al-ʿAyyāshi: From Hasan bin Kharzan, who said:

I wrote to al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام asking him about the meaning of ‘Allāh’, He replied: He has authority over what is minute and what is grand.1

1. Here the Imām عليه السلام explains the meaning of Allāh by stating that His authority embraces everything, even:
a) that which is minute (i.e. small) – even that which cannot be seen by the naked eye, like atoms, which can only be seen by a microscope.
b) that which is grand (i.e. big) – such as the planets and galaxies.
In other words there’s nothing that is outside His authority and power as the Qur’ān states many times: ‘Indeed Allah is over all things powerful’.

عن الحسن بن خرزاذ ، قال : كتبت إلى الصادق ( عليه السلام ) أسأل عن معنى الله . فقال : استولى على ما دق وجل

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #11

Tafsīr al-Imām Abī Moḥammed al-ʿAskari عليه السلام who said:

al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام said: At times, some of our Shiʿa neglect saying In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), at the commencement of his affairs, so Allāh, Mighty and Majestic, tests him with difficulties, in order that He alerts him to be grateful to Allāh, Blessed and High, and praise him; and so that the stain of his shortcomings is erased, when he neglected saying In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm).
ʿAbd Allāh bin Yaḥya entered upon ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn عليه السلام and in front of him was a chair. He ordered him to be seated on it, so he sat upon it, whereupon it tilted until he fell upon his head, and a bone from his head was exposed, and the blood flowed. ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn عليه السلام ordered for water and washed off that blood from him.
Then he said: ‘Come near me’. So he went near him, and he placed his hand upon its place of injury, where he had felt from its pain what he could not be patient with, and he wiped his hand upon it, and spat in it – so from that it healed and came to be as if it had not been hit by anything at all.
‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn عليه السلام then said: ‘Oh ʿAbd Allāh! All Praise is for Allāh, who made the purification of the sins of our Shiʿas in the worldly life, by testing them – in order to secure their obedience for them and they would be deserving of its reward.’
ʿAbd Allāh bin Yaḥya said: ‘Oh ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn! Verily, would we not be recompensed for our sins except in this worldly life?’
He said: ‘Yes. Have you not heard the words of The Messenger of Allāh صلى الله عليه وآله: ‘This worldly life is a prison of the believer, and paradise for the disbeliever’? Indeed, Allāh has purified our Shiʿas from their sins in this worldly life, with what they would be engulfed in from the tests, and with what would be forgiven for them; for indeed, Allāh, the High, says: And whatever affliction befalls you, it is on account of what your hands have brought forth, and yet He Pardons most (of your faults)1, to the extent that when they arrive on the Day of Judgment, their acts of obedience and their acts of worship, would be abundantly present for them. And as for our enemies, they would be recompensed upon the acts of obedience from them in this worldly life – even though there was no weight to it, because there is no sincerity along with it – until when they come to the Day of Judgment, their sins would be loaded upon them, and their hatred towards Moḥammed and his progeny صلوات الله عليهم أجمعين and his elite companions. Thus, due to that, they would be flung into the fire.’
So ʿAbd Allāh bin Yaḥya said, ‘Oh ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn, you have profited me and taught me, and if you see fit, introduce me to my sin which I was tested with in this gathering, so that I do not repeat it’s like.’
He said: ‘You neglected, when you sat down that you should be saying, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), so Allāh made that mistake of yours, from what you lamented to, as purification with what hit you. However, do you not know that The Messenger of Allāh narrated to me, from Allāh, Mighty and Majestic, that He Said: “Every important matter in which one does not recite [before it] the name of Allāh, it [will remain] cut off (i.e. would remain unfinished).”
So I said, ‘Yes – May my father and my mother be sacrificed for you – I will not neglect it, after this’.
He said: ‘Then you have been fortified with that and you will be in prosperity.’
ʿAbd Allāh bin Yaḥya then said: ‘Oh ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn, what is the interpretation of In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm)?
He said: ‘A servant, when he intends to recite, or perform a deed, and he is saying, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), meaning, ‘with this Name I perform this deed’. Therefore, every deed he performs, and commences it with , In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm), there will be, indeed, a blessing for him in it.’

1. Al-Shūra 42:30

تفسير الإمام أبي محمد العسكري ( عليه السلام ) قال : قال الصادق ( عليه السلام ) : ولربما ترك في افتتاح أمر بعض شيعتنا * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * فيمتحنه الله بمكروه ، لينبهه على شكر الله والثناء عليه ، ويمحو عنه وصمة تقصيره ، عند تركه قول : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * . لقد دخل عبدالله بن يحيى على أمير المؤمنين ( عليه السلام ) ، وبين يديه كرسي ، فأمره بالجلوس عليه ، فجلس عليه ، فمال به حتى سقط على رأسه ، فأوضح عن عظم رأسه ، وسال الدم ، فأمر أمير المؤمنين ( عليه السلام ) بماء ، فغسل عنه ذلك الدم . ثم قال : ادن مني ، [ فدنا منه ] فوضع يده على موضحته ، وقد كان يجد من ألمها ما لا صبر له معه ، ومسح يده عليها وتفل فيها ، حتى اندمل وصار كأنه لم يصبه شيء قط . وقال أمير المؤمنين ( عليه السلام ) : يا عبدالله ، الحمد لله الذي جعل تمحيص ذنوب شيعتنا في الدنيا بمحنهم ، لتسلم لهم طاعاتهم ، ويستحقوا عليها ثوابها . فقال عبدالله بن يحيى : يا أمير المؤمنين ، وإنا لا نجازى بذنوبنا إلا في الدنيا ؟ قال : نعم ، أما سمعت قول رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) : الدنيا سجن المؤمن ، وجنة الكافر . إن الله تعالى طهر شيعتنا من ذنوبهم في الدنيا بما يبتليهم به من المحن ، وبما يغفره لهم ، فإن الله تعالى يقول : وما أَصابَكُمْ مِنْ مُصِيبَةٍ فَبِما كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ ويَعْفُوا عَنْ كَثِيرٍ ) * حتى إذا وردوا يوم القيامة ، توفرت عليهم طاعاتهم وعباداتهم . وإن أعداءنا يجازيهم عن طاعة تكون في الدنيا منهم – وإن كان لا وزن لها ، لأنه لا إخلاص معها – حتى إذا وافوا القيامة ، حملت عليهم ذنوبهم ، وبغضهم لمحمد وآله ( صلوات الله عليهم أجمعين ) وخيار أصحابه ، فقذفوا في النار . فقال عبدالله بن يحيى : يا أمير المؤمنين ، قد أفدتني وعلمتني ، فإن رأيت أن تعرفني ذنبي الذي امتحنت به في هذا المجلس ، حتى لا أعود إلى مثله ؟ فقال : تركك حين جلست أن تقول : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * فجعل الله ذلك لسهوك عما ندبت إليه تمحيصا بما أصابك ، أما علمت أن رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) حدثني ، عن الله عز وجل أنه قال : كل أمر ذي بال لم يذكر فيه اسم الله ، فهو أبتر ؟ فقلت : بلى – بأبي أنت وأمي – لا أتركها بعدها . قال : إذن تحظى وتسعد . قال عبدالله بن يحيى : يا أمير المؤمنين ، ما تفسير * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * ؟ قال : إن العبد إذا أراد أن يقرأ ، أو يعمل عملا ، فيقول : * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * أي بهذا الاسم أعمل هذا العمل ، فكل عمل يعمله ، يبدأ فيه ب * ( بِسْمِ اللَّه الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ ) * فإنه مبارك له فيه

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, In the name of Allāh, The Entirely Merciful, The Especially Merciful (Bismillah al-Raḥmān al-Raḥīm) – Ḥadīth #12

Rabīʿ al-Abrār:

A man asked Jaʿfar bin Moḥammed عليه السلام: ‘What is the proof of Allāh? However don’t use the world, or demonstrations nor substances within the earth [as your proof].’
He replied: ‘Have you sailed the sea?’
He said: ‘Yes.’
He replied: ‘Has the wind blown upon you, such that it caused you to be fearful of drowning?’
He said: ‘Yes.’
He replied: ‘Was your hope cut off from the people aboard the boat and the sailors?’
He said: ‘Yes.’
He replied: ‘Did there occur within yourself that impulse to call upon one who could rescue you?’
He said: ‘Yes.’
The Imam then said: ‘That [which you called upon] is Allāh, Exalted and High. Allāh has said: lost are [all] those you invoke except for Him, then when adversity touches you,1 to Him you cry for help.2

1. Al-Isrā’ 17:67
2. Al-Naḥl 16:53

 ربيع الأبرار للزمخشري : قال : قال رجل لجعفر بن محمد ( عليهما السلام ) : ما الدليل على الله ، ولا تذكر لي العالم والعرض والجواهر ؟ فقال له : هل ركبت البحر ؟ قال : نعم . قال : فهل عصفت بكم الريح ، حتى خفتم الغرق ؟ قال : نعم . قال : [ قال : فهل انقطع رجاؤك من المركب والملاحين ؟  قال : نعم . ] قال : فهل تتبعت نفسك أن ثم من ينجيك ؟ قال : نعم . قال : فإن ذاك هو الله سبحانه وتعالى ، قال الله : عز وجل : ضَلَّ مَنْ تَدْعُونَ إِلَّا إِيَّاه  وإِذا مَسَّكُمُ الضُّرُّ فَإِلَيْه تَجْئَرُونَ

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّه رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ [2] الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ [3] مالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ [4] إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ [5] اهْدِنَا الصِّراطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ [6] صِراطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ ولَا الضَّالِّينَ [7]

[All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds – [2] The Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful, [3] Sovereign of the Day of Recompense. [4] It is You we worship and You we ask for help. [5] Guide us to the straight path – [6] The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. [7] (1:2-7)

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds … not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. – Ḥadīth #01

al-Kāfi: Moḥammed bin Yaʿqūb, from a number of our companions, from Aḥmed bin Moḥammed bin Khālid, from some of our companions, from Moḥammed bin Hāshim, from Maysar:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام, who said: Appreciation of the bounties is to keep away from that which is forbidden, and completion of appreciation is the words of a man [saying]: [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds (al-Ḥamdulillahi rabb al-ʿālamīn).

محمد بن يعقوب : عن عدة من أصحابنا ، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد ، عن بعض أصحابنا ، عن محمد بن هشام ، عن ميسر ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : « شكر النعمة اجتناب المحارم ، وتمام الشكر قول الرجل : * ( الْحَمْدُ لِلَّه رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ ) * »

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds … not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. – Ḥadīth #02

Kashf al-Ghimma: al-Shaykh al-Fādhl, ʿAlī bin ʿĪsa:

From Imām al-Ṣādiq عليه السلام, who said: My father lost his mule, therefor he said: ‘If Allāh returns it to me, I shall praise Him with praises in which will please Him.’
He didn’t tarry long, then came the mule with its saddle and bridle. So when he sat upon the mule, he raised his head towards the sky and said ‘[All] praise is [due] to Allāh’, and he didn’t say anything more than that. Then he said: ‘I didn’t leave anything out, I made all the different types of praises for Allāh, therefor there’s no praise except it’s found within what I said.
Then ʿAlī bin ʿĪsa said: ‘He عليه السلام spoke the truth and was sincere, for indeed the alif and lam in His words alḤamdulillah includes all types of praises, it singles out and made particularly for Allāh with praise.’

الشيخ الفاضل علي بن عيسى في ( كشف الغمة ) : عن الإمام الصادق ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : « فقد أبي بغلة له ، فقال : إن ردها الله علي لأحمدنه بمحامد يرضاها ، فلما لبث أن أتي بها بسرجها ولجامها ، فلما استوى [ عليها ] وضم إليه ثيابه ، رفع رأسه إلى السماء ، وقال : * ( الْحَمْدُ لِلَّه ) * ولم يزد . ثم قال : ما تركت ولا أبقيت شيئا ، جعلت جميع أنواع المحامد لله عز وجل ، فما من حمد إلا وهو داخل فيما قلت » . ثم قال علي بن عيسى : صدق وبر ( عليه السلام ) فإن الألف واللام في قوله : * ( الْحَمْدُ لِلَّه ) * يستغرق الجنس وتفرده تعالى بالحمد .

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds … not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. – Ḥadīth #03

Tafsīr al-Qummi: ʿAlī bin Ibrāhīm, who said – it was narrated to me by my father, from Moḥammed bin Abī ʿUmaryr, from al-Nadhr bin Suwīd, from Abī Baṣīr:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام, regarding His words: [All] praise is [due] to Allah, he said: ‘The appreciation to Allah.’
And regarding His words: Lord of the worlds, he said: ‘Creator of all creations.’
The Entirely Merciful, ‘with all creatures. ‘
The Especially Merciful, ‘with the believers in particular.’
Sovereign of the Day of Recompense, he said: ‘The Day of reckoning – and the evidence upon that are His words: They will say, “O woe to us! This is the Day of Recompense.”,1 meaning the Day of the reckoning.’
It is You we worship, he said: ‘Addressing Allāh, the Mighty and Majestic’,
And You we ask for help, ‘similarly.’
Guide us to the straight path, he said: ‘The pathway, and recognition, of the Imām.’

1. Al-Ṣāffāt (37:20)

علي بن إبراهيم ، قال : حدثني أبي ، عن محمد بن أبي عمير ، عن النضر بن سويد ، عن أبي بصير ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) في قوله : * ( الْحَمْدُ لِلَّه ) * قال : « الشكر لله » . وفي قوله : * ( رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ ) * قال : « خالق الخلق . * ( الرَّحْمنِ ) * بجميع خلقه * ( الرَّحِيمِ ) * بالمؤمنين خاصة » . * ( مالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ ) * قال : « يوم الحساب ، والدليل على ذلك قوله : وقالُوا يا وَيْلَنا هذا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ ) * يعني يوم الحساب » . * ( إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ ) * « مخاطبة الله عز وجل و * ( وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ ) * مثله » . * ( اهْدِنَا الصِّراطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ ) * قال : « الطريق ، ومعرفة الإمام » .

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds … not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. – Ḥadīth #04

Tafsīr al-Qummi: He said, it was narrated to me by my father, from Ḥammād:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام, regarding His saying: the straight path, he said: That is ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn عليه  السلام, and recognition of him – and the proof that it is ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn is His saying: ‘And indeed it is, in the Mother of the Book with Us, is ʿAlī, a wise man.’1 2 and it is ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn in the Mother of the Book.

1. Al-Zukhruf (43:4)
2. Most translations suggest it is: “And indeed it is, in the Mother of the Book with Us, exalted and full of wisdom.” However, according to this ḥadīth, the Imām suggests it means it is ʿAlī. The Arabic would not change, as the Arabic word could indeed mean both things. In regards to this, al-Majlisi says: “In many traditions from Ibn Mahyar and others, Imām al-Ṣādiq and Imam Ridha (as) are reported to have said, while explaining the verse that it implies that the Qur’ān in the protected tablet is with Us. It is protected from any changes or alterations and it is the highest in rank among all Divine scriptures and it is full of wisdom, that is, it contains many words of wisdom or it is Moḥkam (clear) and it is not cancelled or amended but by itself. These gentleman have said that it means that ʿAlī (as) is mentioned in Surah al-Fātiḥa which is Umm al-Kitāb (Mother of the Book) who is both wise and intelligent. And it depends upon the fact that Imam ʿAlī (as) is the straight path in the path of guardianship and following. Hence it is said that when people asked Imam Ridha (as) as to where Imam ʿAlī bin Abī Ṭālib has been mentioned in Umm al-Kitab. He replied: in ―”Guide us to the straight path” because ʿAlī (as) is the Ṣīrāt Mustaqīm and it is mentioned in the prayer of the day of Ghadīr that: I give witness that ʿAlī (as) is the guiding Imām and that he is the Master of the Believers whose mention has been made by Allāh in His book, saying: And surely it is in the mother of the Book with Us, (ʿAlī ) truly elevated, full of wisdom.” [Ḥayāt al-Qulūb, al-Majlisi, English version translated by Syed Athar Husain S.H.Rizvi, Al-Qalam Translators & Writers Bureau, Published by Ansariyan, Volume 3, Pages #145-146]

قال : وحدثني أبي ، عن حماد ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) في قوله : * ( الصِّراطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ ) * . قال : « هو أمير المؤمنين ( عليه السلام ) ومعرفته ، والدليل على أنه أمير المؤمنين قوله : وإِنَّه فِي أُمِّ الْكِتابِ لَدَيْنا لَعَلِيٌّ حَكِيمٌ ) * وهو أمير المؤمنين ( عليه السلام ) في أم الكتاب . »

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds … not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. – Ḥadīth #05

Tafsīr al-Qummi: He said, it was narrated to me by my father, from al-Qāsim bin Moḥammed, from Sulaymān bin Dāwūd al-Manqari, from Ḥafs bin Ghayāth, who said:

Abū ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام described the al-Ṣirāṭ,1 so he said: A thousand years of ascent, and a thousand years of descent, and a thousand years of hiking.

1. al-Ṣirāt (الصراط) is the bridge, hair-line in width, which everyone will have to pass through it on the Day of Judgement.
Some traditions say some people will pass like lighting, some will pass quickly, some will pass walking, some will pass slowly while crawling, being burned by its flames in the process.
There’s a tradition in al-Kāfi, that describes the supplication that Imām ʿAlī عليه السلام would recite while making ablution – where he would wipe his feet and say: Oh Allāh, make my feet firm on the Ṣirāt on the day which many will slip and fall.

وعنه : وحدثني أبي ، عن القاسم بن محمد ، عن سليمان بن داود المنقري ، عن حفص بن غياث ، قال : وصف أبو عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) الصراط ، فقال : « ألف سنة صعود ، وألف سنة هبوط ، وألف سنة حدال » .

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds … not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. – Ḥadīth #06

Tafsīr al-Qummi: From him, from Saʿdān bin Muslim:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام: I (the narrator) asked him about al-Ṣirāt,1 whereupon he replied: It is thinner than a hair and sharper than the sword. And among them would be one who would pass over it like the lightning, and among them would be the one who would pass over it like the galloping horse, and among them would be one who would pass over it like walking, and among them would be one who would pass over it crawling – clinging on. So the fire would take some from it and leave some.

1. al-Ṣirāt (الصراط) is the bridge, hair-line in width, which everyone will have to pass through it on the Day of Judgement.

وعنه : عن سعدان بن مسلم ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : سألته عن الصراط ، قال : « هو أدق من الشعر ، وأحد من السيف فمنهم من يمر عليه مثل البرق ، ومنهم من يمر عليه مثل عدو الفرس ، ومنهم من يمر عليه ماشيا ، ومنهم من يمر عليه حبوا ، متعلقا ، فتأخذ النار منه شيئا وتترك بعضا » .

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds … not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. – Ḥadīth #07

Tafsīr al-Qummi: And from him also, he said: And it was narrated to my by my father, from Ḥammād, from Ḥurayz:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام, where he recited: Guide us to the straight path, the path which1 whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. He said: those who have evoked [Your] anger are the hostile ones (al-Nuṣṣāb), or of those who are astray are the Jews and Christians.

1. There is a slight variation that the common recitation, which is reflective of the reading of ʿUmar bin al-Khaṭṭāb, ʿAmru bin ʿAbd Allāh al-Zubayri, and some narrations via the Ahl al-Bayt عليهم السلام. See Majmaʿ al-Bayān, Volume 1, Page 105.

وعنه أيضا ، قال : وحدثني أبي ، عن حماد ، عن حريز ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) أنه قرأ : « اهدنا الصراط المستقيم صراط من أنعمت عليهم غير المغضوب عليهم ولا الضالين » قال : « المغضوب عليهم : النصاب ، والضالين : اليهود والنصارى » .

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds … not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. – Ḥadīth #08

Tafsīr al-Qummi: And from ibn Abī ʿUmayr, from ibn Adhina:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام regarding His Words: not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. He said: those who have evoked [Your] anger are the hostile ones (al-Nuṣṣāb), or of those who are astray are the ones who are the skeptics, who haven not recognized their Imām.

وعن ابن أبي عمير ، عن ابن أذينة ، عن أبي عبدالله ( عليه السلام ) في قوله : * ( غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ ولَا الضَّالِّينَ ) * . قال : « المغضوب عليهم : النصاب ، والضالين : الشكاك الذين لا يعرفون الإمام » .

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds … not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. – Ḥadīth #09

Mukhtaṣir Baṣā’ir al-Darajāt: Saʿd bin ʿAbd Allāh, from Aḥmed bin al-Ḥussain, from ʿAlī bin al-Rayān, from ʿUbayd Allāh bin ʿAbd Allāh al-Dahqān, who said:

I heard Abī al-Ḥassan al-Ridha عليه السلام say: Indeed, with Allāh is a green crystal called peridot beyond this domain, in which it causes the sky to light up with the color green.
He (the narrator) asked: what is the domain?
He replied: It is a veil (ḥijāb), and beyond that Allāh has 70,000 worlds, more than the number of jinn and men; and all of them curse fulān and fulān.1

1. In Arabic, fulān is the equivalent of saying so and so. Often this is used when there is a need to refrain from naming a particular individual by their common name, or in reference to a person in general.

سعد بن عبدالله : عن أحمد بن الحسين ، عن علي بن الريان ، عن عبيد الله بن عبدالله الدهقان ، عن أبي الحسن الرضا ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : سمعته يقول : « إن لله خلف هذا النطاق زبرجدة خضراء ، منها اخضرت السماء » . قلت : وما النطاق ؟ ! قال : « الحجاب ، ولله عز وجل وراء ذلك سبعون ألف عالم ، أكثر من عدة الجن والإنس ، وكلهم يلعن فلانا وفلانا » .

Al-Burhān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān, [All] praise is [due] to Allah , Lord of the worlds … not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. – Ḥadīth #10

Mukhtaṣir Baṣā’ir al-Darajāt: And from him, from Salamah bin al-Khaṭṭāb, from Aḥmed bin ʿAbd al-Raḥmān bin (in some transcripts, it is ‘from’) ʿAbd Ribah al-Ṣīrfi, from Moḥammed bin Sulaymān, from Yaqṭīn al-Jawālīfi, from Falfala:

From Abī ʿAbd Allāh عليه السلام, who said: Indeed Allāh, Mighty and Majestic, created a mountain made of green peridot1 that encompasses this world, and the sky is lit with green due to this mountain. He created beyond this creation another creation, in which they are not obligated with the things that others are obligated with like prayer and alms-tax, and all of them curse two men2 from this nation (ummah).

1. Green peridot is known as zabarjad in Arabic, and it’s a precious stone which has many great qualities and comes in bright green. It is also mentioned in other traditions that this stone will be in the pond of kawthar along with yaʿqūt (ruby) and zumurud (emerald).
2. These two men are the same two referenced in the previous ḥadīth in this chapter.

وعنه : عن سلمة بن الخطاب ، عن أحمد بن عبد الرحمن بن عبد ربه الصيرفي ، عن محمد بن سليمان ، عن يقطين الجواليقي ، عن فلفلة ، عن أبي جعفر ( عليه السلام ) ، قال : « إن الله عز وجل خلق جبلا محيطا بالدنيا [ من ] زبرجدة خضراء ، وإنما خضرة السماء من خضرة ذلك الجبل ، وخلق خلفه خلقا ، لم يفترض عليهم شيئا مما افترض على خلقه من صلاة وزكاة ، وكلهم يلعن رجلين من هذه الأمة » وسماهما .

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